ans this ques part 2

Discussion in 'NBDE Exams & Licensure Exams' started by dentindi, May 26, 2008.

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  1. dentindi

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    The posterior belly of the digastric is supplied by which of the following nerves?
    Vagus
    Facial
    Trigeminal
    Cervical spinal
    Inferior alveolar
    Which of the following pairs of amino acids is expected to be found on the interior of a globular protein?
    Lysine and arginine
    Arginine and leucine
    Leucine and valine
    Valine and glutamic acid
    Glutamic acid and lysine

    Which of the following conditions might be an initial manifestation of early, acute HIV infection?
    Kaposi's sarcoma
    Wasting syndrome
    Oral hairy leukoplakia
    Monoeucleosis-like syndrome
    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    Which of the following primary teeth has a distinctly prominent facial cervical ridge that makes it different from other teeth?
    Maxillary canine
    Mandibular canine
    Mandibular first molar
    Maxillary second molar
    Maxillary central incisor
    An anemic individual is expected to have which of the following conditions in systemic arterial blood?
    Elevated Normal
    Elevated Reduced
    Reduced Normal
    Normal Reduced
    Reduced Reduced
    In the presence of sucrose, Streptococcus mutans produces
    L-forms
    Very long chains of cocci
    Regular diploid paris rather than chains
    Deposits of a gummy polysaccharide called glucan
    A very thick wall of muramic acid and mucopeptide substances
    Which of the following properties do mast cells and basophils have in common?
    Found in blood
    Develop from lymphocytes
    Secrete heparin and histamine
    Decrease during time of infection
    Migrate to line the inside of blood vessels
    Protein and RNA synthesis occur in each of the following phases of the cell cycle EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    G0
    G1
    S
    G2
    M
    Each of the following is attributable to hepatic failure EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Tremor
    Gynecomastia
    Mallory bodies
    Hypoalbuminemia
    Spider telangiectasia
    As viewed from the lingual, the lingual cusp of a maxillary first premolar is inclined
    Distally
    Mesially
    Distofacially
    Mesiolingually
    Directly over the center mesiodistally
    Gram-positive cell walls differ form gram-negative cell walls in that gram-positive cell walls uniquely contain
    Teichoic acids
    Lipopolysaccharides
    Acid-fast lipids
    Endotoxins
    The main route of calcium excretion from a normal human adult is
    Urine
    Sweat
    Saliva
    Feces
    Tears
    The parotid duct crosses the
    Temporalis
    Facial artery
    Masseter muscle
    Zygomaticus major
    Lateral pterygoid
    The cusp of Carabelli occurs with sufficient frequency to be considered normal in which of the following molars?
    Primary maxillary first
    Primary maxillary second
    Mandibular first
    Maxillary second
    Which of the following temporomandibular joint ligaments restricts the movement of the disc away from the condyle during function?
    Discal
    Stylomandibular
    Temporomandibular
    Sphenomandibular
    A patient who has anemia, poorly localized abdominal pain, and wrist and foot drop probably is manifesting a toxic state induced by which of the following?
    Heroin
    Cocaine
    Bismuth
    Mercury
    Lead
    Which of the following is a ketone body?
    Glycerol
    Glucagon
    Acetyl CoA
    Acetoacetate
    Phophatidylcholine
    Inorganic crystals in enamel have their long axes parallel to the rods in which of the following?
    Centers of the bodies of the rods only
    Periphery of the bodies of the rods only
    Bodies of the rods and deviating increasingly in the tails
    Tails of the rods and deviating increasingly from the centers of the bodies to the periphery
    Tails of the rods and deviating increasingly from the periphery of the bodies to the centers
    #220 (Also 206) does not have the needed picture
    The presence of mamelons in a 10-year-old patient suggests which of the following conditions?
    Fluorosis
    Malnutrition
    Malformation
    Anterior open bite
    Retained primary teeth
    Which of the following pathogens is MOST often associated with infective endocarditis?
    Pneumococci
    Group A streptococci
    Group B streptococci
    Alpha hemolytic streptococci
    Beta hemolytic streptococci
    Which of the following coenzymes is required for the synthesis of pyrimidines, such as thymine?
    Niacin
    Thiamine
    Folic acid
    Riboflavin
    Pyridoxine
    Each of the following venous channels has direct connections with the pterygoid venous plexus EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Maxillary vein
    Vertebral artery
    Deep facial vein
    Infraorbital vein
    Posterior superior alveolar vein
    Vitamin C deficiency primarily affects which of the following tissues?
    Hematopoietic
    Connective
    Epithelial
    Muscular
    Nervous
    In the upper limb, which of the following represents a hallmark of lymphatic vessels?
    Contain valves
    Follow the veins
    Always travel in pairs
    Only found on the anterior surface of the limb
    Contain fenestrations to allow passage of fluids into the interstitium
    When viewed from the incisal aspect, each of the following features of an incisor is visible EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Cingulum
    Lingual fossa
    Cervical line
    Marginal ridges
    Mesiofacial developmental depression
    Each of the following is expected to be active during fatty acid biosynthesis EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Tricarboxylic acid cycle
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase
    Amino acid catabolism
    Beta oxidation
    Glycolysis
    Pain in inflamed tissues is associated with the release of which of the following mediators?
    Histamine
    Serotonin
    Bradykinin
    Leukotrienes
    Complement components
    Which of the following cranial nerves contains parasympathetic components?
    Facial
    Abducens
    Trigeminal
    Hypoglossal
    Spinal accessory
    In an ideal intercuspal position, the mesiofacial groove of a mandibular first molar opposes which part of the maxillary first molar?
    Tip of the distofacial cusp
    Tip of the mesiofacial cusp
    Triangular ridge of the distofacial cusp
    Triangular ridge of the mesiofacial cusp
    Which of the following represents genes that often encode proteins necessary for antibiotic resistance, and that can change positions on a chromosome or "jump" from a plasmid to a chromosome?
    Tryptophan operon
    Lysogens
    Prophage
    Transposons
    Which of the following BEST describes the major funtion of histones?
    Unwind DNA
    Activate genes
    Stabilize DNA in a compact form
    Remove exons during RNA splicing
    Stabilize RNA during transcription
    The thyrocervical trunk is comprised of the inferior thyroid, the transverse cervical artery, and the
    Vertebral
    Suprascapular
    Dorsal scapular
    Superior thyroid
    Ascending pharyngeal
    Under physiologic conditions, the LOWEST partial pressure of oxygen is found in
    Expired air
    Alveolar air
    Venous blood
    Arterial blood
    Normal atmosphere air
    The condyle on the laterotrusive side generally rotates about a
    Sagittal axis only
    Horizontal axis only
    Horizontal axis and translates laterally
    Vertical axis and translates laterally
    Each of the following diseases is transmitted from person to person by droplets or droplet spray EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Condyloma acuminatum
    Whooping cough
    Meningitis
    Diptheria
    Pneumonia
    Which of the following bones forms the roof of the orbit?
    Zygomatic
    Maxilla
    Palatine
    Sphenoid
    Frontal
    Which of the following describes sebaceous glands of the skin?
    They are associated with hair follicles and are derived from ectoderm
    They serve a secretory function in conjuction with Pacinian corpuscles
    They secrete a serous material by the merocrine method
    They yield a salty secretion and are derived from mesoderm
    The first step in the pathway for fatty acid synthesis is catalyzed by an allosteric enzyme which is the principal regulator of the pathway. This enzyme is
    Thiolase
    Pyruvate carboxylase
    Citrate synthetase
    Acetyl CoA carboxylase
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase
    Which of the following is a major disadvantage of ethylene oxide sterilization?
    Difficult to obtain
    Very toxic to humans
    Requires high temperatures (160)
    Causes corrosion of metal instruments
    Causes discoloration of clear plastic objects
    What teeth occlude with only one opposing tooth?
    Maxillary canines
    Mandibular lateral incisors
    Mandibular central incisors
    Maxillary first premolars
    Mandibular third molars
    Endochondral ossification occurs in the formation of
    All bones
    Flat bones
    Long bones
    Elastic cartilage
    Mesenchymal sheets
    Which of the following represents the MOST common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants?
    Measles virus
    Cytomegalovirus
    Influenza virus
    Herpes simplex virus
    Respiratory syncytial virus
    The developmental groove between the distofacial cusp and distal cusp of a mandibular first molar is the
    Facial
    Distal
    Distofacial
    Mesiofacial
    Distal oblique
    Which of the following represents the anterior boundary of the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone?
    Styloid process
    Articular eminence
    Petrotympanic fissure
    External auditory meatus
    Mastoid process of temporal bone
    The development of which of the following types of hepatitis depends on the host having been previously infected with hepatitis B virus?
    Hepatitis A
    Hepatitis C
    Hepatitis D
    Hepatitis E
    Hepatitis G
    Glucose-6-phosphatase is found associated with which of the following?
    Kidneys and liver
    Liver and muscle
    Kidneys and brain
    Kidneys and muscles
    The osteoclast originates from which of the following?
    Monocyte
    Osteocyte
    Osteoblast
    Neutrophil
    Bone-lining cell
    Which of the following permanent roots is thin mesiodistally, wide faciolingually, and concave on both mesial and distal surfaces?
    Maxillary central incisor
    Mandibular central incisor
    Mandibular second premolar
    Facial root of a maxillary first premolar
    Lingual root of a maxillary first molar
    The catabolism of which of the following results in no energy production in the form of ATP?
    Lipid
    Protein
    Nucleotide
    Carbohydrate
    Recovery from an infection with mumps virus confers lifelong immunity. This describes which of the following types of immunity?
    Innate
    Natural active
    Natural passive
    Artificial active
    Artificial passive
    Which of the following represents the structure in the maxillary alveolar bone that maxillary premolar roots occasionally penetrate?
    Antrum
    Nasal septum
    Frontal sinus
    Zygomatic arch
    Mandibular fossa
    The mylohyoid ridge (line) is found on which of the following portions of the mandible?
    Coronoid
    Neck
    Ramus
    Condyle
    Body
    Which of the following represents the portion of the bacterial endotoxin molecule that is MOST responsible for its toxic activity?
    Lipid A
    Protein A
    O antigen
    Core polysaccharide
    Which of the following BEST describes restriction enzymes?
    Exonucleases
    Topoisomerases
    Enzymes that degrade RNA
    Non-specific endonucleases
    Site-specific endonucleases
    The contact areas of anterior teeth are incisal to the middle thirds in each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Distal contact of the maxillary canine
    Mesial contact of the maxillary canine
    Mesial contact of the maxillary lateral incisor
    Mesial contact of the mandibular lateral incisor
    Distal contact of the mandibular lateral incisor
    Proteins for extracellular use can be synthesized in which of the following structures?
    Nucleolemma
    Mitochondria
    Heterochromatin
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    Which of the following types of blotting can be used to identify DNA restriction fragments?
    Eastern
    Southern
    Northern
    Western
    The unique amino acid composition of collagen is reflected in the hgih content of
    Valine, threonine, an lysine
    Demosine, glycine, and proline
    Cysteine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine
    Glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline
    Cysteine, hydroxylysine, and proline
    Which of the following represents the type of maxillofacial bone graft having the BEST chance of success?
    Isograft
    Homograft
    Allograft
    Autograft
    Xenograft
    Which of the following represents a risk factor for the development of endometrial carcinoma?
    Herpes simplex virus infection
    Endometriosis
    Multiple leiomyomas
    Multiple pregnancies
    Hyperestrogenism
    Which of the following vitamins is essential for the normal elaboration and maintenance of bone matrix, cartilage, and dentin?
    Niacin
    Vitamin E
    Ascorbic acid
    Pantothenic acid
    Calcium stimulates muscle contraction. Its effect is mediated through binding to which of the following?
    Actin
    Tropomyosin
    Tropinin I
    Troponin C
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum
    Which of the following features helps to distinguish a maxillary lateral incisor from a mandibular lateral incisor? The maxillary lateral has
    A thinner incisal ridge
    A crown more twisted on the root
    A more pronounced lingual fossa
    A root that is flattened mesiodistally
    A mesioincisal angle that is sharper
    SEE #266 In booklet (picture)
    Which of the following produce surfactant?
    Monocytes
    Clara cells
    Goblet cells
    Type I pneumocytes
    Type II pneumocytes
    Each of the following fluids is considered one that can transmit HIV EXCEPT one. Which one is this ESCEPTION?
    Semen
    Serum
    Saliva
    Amniotic fluid
    Breast milk
    When compared to a maxillary first molar, the roots of a maxillary second molar
    Are longer
    Are more divergent
    Are fewer in number
    Have less potential for fusion
    Are greater in distal inclination
    In right laterotrusive movement, the lingual cusp of a maxillary right second premolar passes through which of the following mandibular structures?
    Facial groove of the right first molar
    Lingual groove of the right first molar
    Embrassure between the right first premolar and the right second premolar
    Embrassure between the right second premolar and the right first molar
    Which of the following is the MOST appropriate sterilization method for a heat-labile item to be used in a surgical procedure?
    Dry heat
    Autoclaving
    Ethylene oxide
    Saturated chemical vapor
    Immersion in chemical sterilant
    The primary function of the anterior portion of the temporalis muscle is to
    Elevate the mandible only
    Protrude the mandible only
    Elevate and retrude the mandible
    Help stabilize the articular disc
    Move the mandible to the contralateral side
    Bile salts are sodium salts of bile acid that are conjugated with
    Cysteine and serine
    Taurine and glycine
    Methionine and lysine
    Homocysteine and ornithine
    In order for RNA oncogenic viruses to be integrated into the host genome, they must possess
    Translation enzymes
    Restriction endonuclease
    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    RNA-dependent DNA polymerase
    On the lingual crown surface of maxillary canines, which of the following is the structure located immediately mesial to the distolingual fossa?
    Cingulum
    Lingual ridge
    Mesiolingual fossa
    Mesial marginal ridge
    Distal marginal ridge
    In which of the following structures are glycoproteins assembled for extracellular use?
    Nucleolemma
    Polyribosomes
    Golgi apparatus
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    Which of the following statements BEST describes the strength of cardiac muscle contraction? It is
    Decreased when extracellular Ca is increased
    Increased when extracellular Ca is increased
    Mainly regulated by vagal impulses
    Unaffected by extracellular Ca
    Mainly regulated by heart rate
    Oxygen-dependant killing of bacteria by neutrophils involves each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Superoxide
    Collagenase
    Myeloperoxidase
    Hydrogen peroxide
    NADP dehydrogenase
    Which of the following are the teeth whose masticatory function is primarily biting?
    Incisors and canines
    Incisors and premolars
    Canines and premolars
    Premolars and molars
    Which of the following represents the predominant serum immunoglobulin found during a memory response?
    IgA
    IgD
    IgE
    IgG
    s-IgA
    Which of the following mechanisms operates in liver cells to regulate breakdown of glycogen?
    Zymogen activation
    Phophorylation of phosphorylase b to phosphorylase a
    Induction of phosphorylase b by an inducer
    Inhibition of adenylate cyclase
    Which of the following structures can be palpated by way of the external auditory (acoustic) meatus?
    Zygomatic arch
    Mandibular notch
    Lateral pterygoid muscle
    Coronoid process of the mandible
    Posterior aspect of the mandibular condyle
    Which main product of protein nitrogen metabolism is found in human urine?
    Urea
    Ammonia
    Creatine
    Uric acid
    Creatinine
    Which of the following nerves travels form the carotid triangle into the submandibular triangle of the neck?
    Lingual
    Hypoglossal
    Great auricular
    Ansa cervicalis
    Recurrent laryngeal
    Which of the following best represents the structure on the crown of the maxillary canine which normally lies directly distal to the mesiolingual fossa?
    Lingual ridge
    Distal fossa
    Distolingual fossa
    Distal marginal ridge
    Mesial marginal ridge
    Which of the following organisms causes a granulomatous, tuberculosis-like infection?
    Aspergillus fumigatus
    Microsporum audouini
    Histoplasma capsulatum
    Epidermophyton floccosum
    Trichophyton schoenleinii
    Stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus by a reduction in core temperature will produce which of the following?
    Panting
    Sweating
    Vomiting
    Shivering
    Vasodilation
    Each of the following structures is found in the posterior mediastinum EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Vagus nerve
    Phrenic nerve
    Thoracic duct
    Greater splanchnic nerve
    Sympathetic ganglia
    When an adult with normal occlusion moves the mandible from maximum intercuspation to right lateral relation, which of the following cusps of maxillary left teeth moves through the facial embrassure between the mandibular left premolars?
    Lingual First premolar
    Facial second premolar
    Lingual second premolar
    Mesiofacial first molar
    Distofacial First molar
    A patient has a periapical abscess and a history of hypersensitivity to penicillin. Which of the following antimicrobial agents might be the preferred alternative for this patient?
    Amoxicillin
    Azithromycin
    Tetracycline
    Cephalosporin
    Nystatin
    Which of the following compounds is a precursor of the pigmets of the skin, hair, and eyes?
    Tyrosine
    Cysteine lysine
    Creatine
    Galactosamine
    Intelligence and sensory-motor functions of a patient appear to be intact. However, the patient lacks self-discipline and has exhibited anti-social behavior. He is unable to plan for the future or to organize behaviors into logical sequences. A lesion in which of the following areas is likely?
    Frontal lobe
    Occipital lobe
    Internal capsule
    Temporal lobe
    Parietal lobe
    Which of the following organs secretes insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and what stimulates this secretion?
    Anterior pituitary, increasing IGF-RH in the blood
    Anterior pituitary, increasing GRH in the blood
    Kidney, increasing growth hormone in the blood
    Liver, increasing growth hormone in the blood
    Liver, increasing TSH in the blood
    Edema as a result of a hemodynamic disorder commonly occurs in each of the following locations EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Lungs
    Brain
    Subcutaneous tissues
    Peritoneal cavity
    Pancrease
    The tissue present between the articulating bones of the temporomandibular joint is called the
    Articular disc
    Fibrous capsule
    Synovial membrane
    Joint capsule
    Bilaminar zone
    The progression from a healthy gingival sulcus to gingivitis is associated with a shift towards
    Gram-positive cocci
    Gram-negative anaerobic rods
    Gram-positive filamentous rods
    Gram-negative anaerobic cocci
    Gram-positive facultative cocci
    Which of the following enzymes sythesizes polynucleotide chains from nucleotides and does NOT require a primer chain?
    Ligase
    Exonuclease
    Endonuclease
    DNA polymerase
    RNA polymerase
    Which of the following structures travels just posterior to the arch of the azygos vein?
    Hemiazygos vein
    Right vagus nerve
    Left vagus nerve
    Right lymphatic duct
    Greater splanchnic nerve
    An infeciton spreading by way of the lymphatic system from the vermiform appendix first enters the blood stream at the
    Renal vein
    Appendicular vein
    Inferior vena cava
    Brachiocephalic vein
    Internal thoracic vein
    Which of the following describes a major effect of sickle cell anemia?
    Absence of biphosphoglycerate binding of hemoglobin
    Substitution of 2 proximal histidines
    Decreased solubility of the deoxy form of hemoglobin
    A P50 value for hemoglobin similar to that of myoglobin
    Decreased number of subunits in hemoglobin
     
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  3. dentindi

    Joined:
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    The posterior belly of the digastric is supplied by which of the following nerves?
    Vagus
    Facial
    Trigeminal
    Cervical spinal
    Inferior alveolar

    Which of the following pairs of amino acids is expected to be found on the interior of a globular protein?
    Lysine and arginine
    Arginine and leucine
    Leucine and valine
    Valine and glutamic acid
    Glutamic acid and lysine

    Which of the following conditions might be an initial manifestation of early, acute HIV infection?
    Kaposi’s sarcoma
    Wasting syndrome
    Oral hairy leukoplakia
    Monoeucleosis-like syndrome
    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    Which of the following primary teeth has a distinctly prominent facial cervical ridge that makes it different from other teeth?
    Maxillary canine
    Mandibular canine
    Mandibular first molar
    Maxillary second molar
    Maxillary central incisor

    An anemic individual is expected to have which of the following conditions in systemic arterial blood?
    O2 tension o2 content
    Elevated Normal
    Elevated Reduced
    Reduced Normal
    Normal Reduced
    Reduced Reduced

    In the presence of sucrose, Streptococcus mutans produces
    L-forms
    Very long chains of cocci
    Regular diploid paris rather than chains
    Deposits of a gummy polysaccharide called glucan
    A very thick wall of muramic acid and mucopeptide substances

    Which of the following properties do mast cells and basophils have in common?
    Found in blood
    Develop from lymphocytes
    Secrete heparin and histamine
    Decrease during time of infection
    Migrate to line the inside of blood vessels

    Protein and RNA synthesis occur in each of the following phases of the cell cycle EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    G0
    G1
    S
    G2
    M

    Each of the following is attributable to hepatic failure EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Tremor
    Gynecomastia
    Mallory bodies
    Hypoalbuminemia
    Spider telangiectasia

    As viewed from the lingual, the lingual cusp of a maxillary first premolar is inclined
    Distally
    Mesially
    Distofacially
    Mesiolingually
    Directly over the center mesiodistally

    Gram-positive cell walls differ form gram-negative cell walls in that gram-positive cell walls uniquely contain
    Teichoic acids
    Lipopolysaccharides
    Acid-fast lipids
    Endotoxins

    The main route of calcium excretion from a normal human adult is
    Urine
    Sweat
    Saliva
    Feces
    Tears

    The parotid duct crosses the
    Temporalis
    Facial artery
    Masseter muscle
    Zygomaticus major
    Lateral pterygoid

    The cusp of Carabelli occurs with sufficient frequency to be considered normal in which of the following molars?
    Primary maxillary first
    Primary maxillary second
    Mandibular first
    Maxillary second

    Which of the following temporomandibular joint ligaments restricts the movement of the disc away from the condyle during function?
    Discal
    Stylomandibular
    Temporomandibular
    Sphenomandibular

    A patient who has anemia, poorly localized abdominal pain, and wrist and foot drop probably is manifesting a toxic state induced by which of the following?
    Heroin
    Cocaine
    Bismuth
    Mercury
    Lead

    Which of the following is a ketone body?
    Glycerol
    Glucagon
    Acetyl CoA
    Acetoacetate
    Phophatidylcholine

    Inorganic crystals in enamel have their long axes parallel to the rods in which of the following?
    Centers of the bodies of the rods only
    Periphery of the bodies of the rods only
    Bodies of the rods and deviating increasingly in the tails
    Tails of the rods and deviating increasingly from the centers of the bodies to the periphery
    Tails of the rods and deviating increasingly from the periphery of the bodies to the centers
    #220 (Also 206) does not have the needed picture


    The presence of mamelons in a 10-year-old patient suggests which of the following conditions?
    Fluorosis
    Malnutrition
    Malformation
    Anterior open bite
    Retained primary teeth

    Which of the following pathogens is MOST often associated with infective endocarditis?
    Pneumococci
    Group A streptococci
    Group B streptococci
    Alpha hemolytic streptococci
    Beta hemolytic streptococci

    Which of the following coenzymes is required for the synthesis of pyrimidines, such as thymine?
    Niacin
    Thiamine
    Folic acid
    Riboflavin
    Pyridoxine

    Each of the following venous channels has direct connections with the pterygoid venous plexus EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Maxillary vein
    Vertebral artery
    Deep facial vein
    Infraorbital vein
    Posterior superior alveolar vein

    Vitamin C deficiency primarily affects which of the following tissues?
    Hematopoietic
    Connective
    Epithelial
    Muscular
    Nervous

    In the upper limb, which of the following represents a hallmark of lymphatic vessels?
    Contain valves
    Follow the veins
    Always travel in pairs
    Only found on the anterior surface of the limb
    Contain fenestrations to allow passage of fluids into the interstitium

    When viewed from the incisal aspect, each of the following features of an incisor is visible EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Cingulum
    Lingual fossa
    Cervical line
    Marginal ridges
    Mesiofacial developmental depression

    Each of the following is expected to be active during fatty acid biosynthesis EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Tricarboxylic acid cycle
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase
    Amino acid catabolism
    Beta oxidation
    Glycolysis

    Pain in inflamed tissues is associated with the release of which of the following mediators?
    Histamine
    Serotonin
    Bradykinin
    Leukotrienes
    Complement components

    Which of the following cranial nerves contains parasympathetic components?
    Facial
    Abducens
    Trigeminal
    Hypoglossal
    Spinal accessory

    In an ideal intercuspal position, the mesiofacial groove of a mandibular first molar opposes which part of the maxillary first molar?
    Tip of the distofacial cusp
    Tip of the mesiofacial cusp
    Triangular ridge of the distofacial cusp
    Triangular ridge of the mesiofacial cusp

    Which of the following represents genes that often encode proteins necessary for antibiotic resistance, and that can change positions on a chromosome or “jump” from a plasmid to a chromosome?
    Tryptophan operon
    Lysogens
    Prophage
    Transposons

    Which of the following BEST describes the major funtion of histones?
    Unwind DNA
    Activate genes
    Stabilize DNA in a compact form
    Remove exons during RNA splicing
    Stabilize RNA during transcription

    The thyrocervical trunk is comprised of the inferior thyroid, the transverse cervical artery, and the
    Vertebral
    Suprascapular
    Dorsal scapular
    Superior thyroid
    Ascending pharyngeal

    Under physiologic conditions, the LOWEST partial pressure of oxygen is found in
    Expired air
    Alveolar air
    Venous blood
    Arterial blood
    Normal atmosphere air

    The condyle on the laterotrusive side generally rotates about a
    Sagittal axis only
    Horizontal axis only
    Horizontal axis and translates laterally
    Vertical axis and translates laterally

    Each of the following diseases is transmitted from person to person by droplets or droplet spray EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Condyloma acuminatum
    Whooping cough
    Meningitis
    Diptheria
    Pneumonia

    Which of the following bones forms the roof of the orbit?
    Zygomatic
    Maxilla
    Palatine
    Sphenoid
    Frontal

    Which of the following describes sebaceous glands of the skin?
    They are associated with hair follicles and are derived from ectoderm
    They serve a secretory function in conjuction with Pacinian corpuscles
    They secrete a serous material by the merocrine method
    They yield a salty secretion and are derived from mesoderm

    The first step in the pathway for fatty acid synthesis is catalyzed by an allosteric enzyme which is the principal regulator of the pathway. This enzyme is
    Thiolase
    Pyruvate carboxylase
    Citrate synthetase
    Acetyl CoA carboxylase
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase

    Which of the following is a major disadvantage of ethylene oxide sterilization?
    Difficult to obtain
    Very toxic to humans
    Requires high temperatures (160)
    Causes corrosion of metal instruments
    Causes discoloration of clear plastic objects

    What teeth occlude with only one opposing tooth?
    Maxillary canines
    Mandibular lateral incisors
    Mandibular central incisors
    Maxillary first premolars
    Mandibular third molars

    Endochondral ossification occurs in the formation of
    All bones
    Flat bones
    Long bones
    Elastic cartilage
    Mesenchymal sheets

    Which of the following represents the MOST common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants?
    Measles virus
    Cytomegalovirus
    Influenza virus
    Herpes simplex virus
    Respiratory syncytial virus

    The developmental groove between the distofacial cusp and distal cusp of a mandibular first molar is the
    Facial
    Distal
    Distofacial
    Mesiofacial
    Distal oblique

    Which of the following represents the anterior boundary of the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone?
    Styloid process
    Articular eminence
    Petrotympanic fissure
    External auditory meatus
    Mastoid process of temporal bone

    The development of which of the following types of hepatitis depends on the host having been previously infected with hepatitis B virus?
    Hepatitis A
    Hepatitis C
    Hepatitis D
    Hepatitis E
    Hepatitis G

    Glucose-6-phosphatase is found associated with which of the following?
    Kidneys and liver
    Liver and muscle
    Kidneys and brain
    Kidneys and muscles

    The osteoclast originates from which of the following?
    Monocyte
    Osteocyte
    Osteoblast
    Neutrophil
    Bone-lining cell

    Which of the following permanent roots is thin mesiodistally, wide faciolingually, and concave on both mesial and distal surfaces?
    Maxillary central incisor
    Mandibular central incisor
    Mandibular second premolar
    Facial root of a maxillary first premolar
    Lingual root of a maxillary first molar

    The catabolism of which of the following results in no energy production in the form of ATP?
    Lipid
    Protein
    Nucleotide
    Carbohydrate

    Recovery from an infection with mumps virus confers lifelong immunity. This describes which of the following types of immunity?
    Innate
    Natural active
    Natural passive
    Artificial active
    Artificial passive

    Which of the following represents the structure in the maxillary alveolar bone that maxillary premolar roots occasionally penetrate?
    Antrum
    Nasal septum
    Frontal sinus
    Zygomatic arch
    Mandibular fossa

    The mylohyoid ridge (line) is found on which of the following portions of the mandible?
    Coronoid
    Neck
    Ramus
    Condyle
    Body

    Which of the following represents the portion of the bacterial endotoxin molecule that is MOST responsible for its toxic activity?
    Lipid A
    Protein A
    O antigen
    Core polysaccharide

    Which of the following BEST describes restriction enzymes?
    Exonucleases
    Topoisomerases
    Enzymes that degrade RNA
    Non-specific endonucleases
    Site-specific endonucleases

    The contact areas of anterior teeth are incisal to the middle thirds in each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Distal contact of the maxillary canine
    Mesial contact of the maxillary canine
    Mesial contact of the maxillary lateral incisor
    Mesial contact of the mandibular lateral incisor
    Distal contact of the mandibular lateral incisor

    Proteins for extracellular use can be synthesized in which of the following structures?
    Nucleolemma
    Mitochondria
    Heterochromatin
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    Which of the following types of blotting can be used to identify DNA restriction fragments?
    Eastern
    Southern
    Northern
    Western

    The unique amino acid composition of collagen is reflected in the hgih content of
    Valine, threonine, an lysine
    Demosine, glycine, and proline
    Cysteine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine
    Glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline
    Cysteine, hydroxylysine, and praline

    Which of the following represents the type of maxillofacial bone graft having the BEST chance of success?
    Isograft
    Homograft
    Allograft
    Autograft
    Xenograft

    Which of the following represents a risk factor for the development of endometrial carcinoma?
    Herpes simplex virus infection
    Endometriosis
    Multiple leiomyomas
    Multiple pregnancies
    Hyperestrogenism

    Which of the following vitamins is essential for the normal elaboration and maintenance of bone matrix, cartilage, and dentin?
    Niacin
    Vitamin E
    Ascorbic acid
    Pantothenic acid

    Calcium stimulates muscle contraction. Its effect is mediated through binding to which of the following?
    Actin
    Tropomyosin
    Tropinin I
    Troponin C
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum

    Which of the following features helps to distinguish a maxillary lateral incisor from a mandibular lateral incisor? The maxillary lateral has
    A thinner incisal ridge
    A crown more twisted on the root
    A more pronounced lingual fossa
    A root that is flattened mesiodistally
    A mesioincisal angle that is sharper
    SEE #266 In booklet (picture)

    Which of the following produce surfactant?
    Monocytes
    Clara cells
    Goblet cells
    Type I pneumocytes
    Type II pneumocytes

    Each of the following fluids is considered one that can transmit HIV EXCEPT one. Which one is this ESCEPTION?
    Semen
    Serum
    Saliva
    Amniotic fluid
    Breast milk

    When compared to a maxillary first molar, the roots of a maxillary second molar
    Are longer
    Are more divergent
    Are fewer in number
    Have less potential for fusion
    Are greater in distal inclination

    In right laterotrusive movement, the lingual cusp of a maxillary right second premolar passes through which of the following mandibular structures?
    Facial groove of the right first molar
    Lingual groove of the right first molar
    Embrassure between the right first premolar and the right second premolar
    Embrassure between the right second premolar and the right first molar

    Which of the following is the MOST appropriate sterilization method for a heat-labile item to be used in a surgical procedure?
    Dry heat
    Autoclaving
    Ethylene oxide
    Saturated chemical vapor
    Immersion in chemical sterilant
    The primary function of the anterior portion of the temporalis muscle is to
    Elevate the mandible only
    Protrude the mandible only
    Elevate and retrude the mandible
    Help stabilize the articular disc
    Move the mandible to the contralateral side

    Bile salts are sodium salts of bile acid that are conjugated with
    Cysteine and serine
    Taurine and glycine
    Methionine and lysine
    Homocysteine and ornithine

    In order for RNA oncogenic viruses to be integrated into the host genome, they must possess
    Translation enzymes
    Restriction endonuclease
    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    RNA-dependent DNA polymerase

    On the lingual crown surface of maxillary canines, which of the following is the structure located immediately mesial to the distolingual fossa?
    Cingulum
    Lingual ridge
    Mesiolingual fossa
    Mesial marginal ridge
    Distal marginal ridge

    In which of the following structures are glycoproteins assembled for extracellular use?
    Nucleolemma
    Polyribosomes
    Golgi apparatus
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    Which of the following statements BEST describes the strength of cardiac muscle contraction? It is
    Decreased when extracellular Ca is increased
    Increased when extracellular Ca is increased
    Mainly regulated by vagal impulses
    Unaffected by extracellular Ca
    Mainly regulated by heart rate

    Oxygen-dependant killing of bacteria by neutrophils involves each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Superoxide
    Collagenase
    Myeloperoxidase
    Hydrogen peroxide
    NADP dehydrogenase

    Which of the following are the teeth whose masticatory function is primarily biting?
    Incisors and canines
    Incisors and premolars
    Canines and premolars
    Premolars and molars

    Which of the following represents the predominant serum immunoglobulin found during a memory response?
    IgA
    IgD
    IgE
    IgG
    s-IgA

    Which of the following mechanisms operates in liver cells to regulate breakdown of glycogen?
    Zymogen activation
    Phophorylation of phosphorylase b to phosphorylase a
    Induction of phosphorylase b by an inducer
    Inhibition of adenylate cyclase

    Which of the following structures can be palpated by way of the external auditory (acoustic) meatus?
    Zygomatic arch
    Mandibular notch
    Lateral pterygoid muscle
    Coronoid process of the mandible
    Posterior aspect of the mandibular condyle

    Which main product of protein nitrogen metabolism is found in human urine?
    Urea
    Ammonia
    Creatine
    Uric acid
    Creatinine

    Which of the following nerves travels form the carotid triangle into the submandibular triangle of the neck?
    Lingual
    Hypoglossal
    Great auricular
    Ansa cervicalis
    Recurrent laryngeal

    Which of the following best represents the structure on the crown of the maxillary canine which normally lies directly distal to the mesiolingual fossa?
    Lingual ridge
    Distal fossa
    Distolingual fossa
    Distal marginal ridge
    Mesial marginal ridge

    Which of the following organisms causes a granulomatous, tuberculosis-like infection?
    Aspergillus fumigatus
    Microsporum audouini
    Histoplasma capsulatum
    Epidermophyton floccosum
    Trichophyton schoenleinii

    Stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus by a reduction in core temperature will produce which of the following?
    Panting
    Sweating
    Vomiting
    Shivering
    Vasodilation

    Each of the following structures is found in the posterior mediastinum EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Vagus nerve
    Phrenic nerve
    Thoracic duct
    Greater splanchnic nerve
    Sympathetic ganglia

    When an adult with normal occlusion moves the mandible from maximum intercuspation to right lateral relation, which of the following cusps of maxillary left teeth moves through the facial embrassure between the mandibular left premolars?
    Lingual First premolar
    Facial second premolar
    Lingual second premolar
    Mesiofacial first molar
    Distofacial First molar

    A patient has a periapical abscess and a history of hypersensitivity to penicillin. Which of the following antimicrobial agents might be the preferred alternative for this patient?
    Amoxicillin
    Azithromycin
    Tetracycline
    Cephalosporin
    Nystatin

    Which of the following compounds is a precursor of the pigmets of the skin, hair, and eyes?
    Tyrosine
    Cysteine lysine
    Creatine
    Galactosamine

    Intelligence and sensory-motor functions of a patient appear to be intact. However, the patient lacks self-discipline and has exhibited anti-social behavior. He is unable to plan for the future or to organize behaviors into logical sequences. A lesion in which of the following areas is likely?
    Frontal lobe
    Occipital lobe
    Internal capsule
    Temporal lobe
    Parietal lobe

    Which of the following organs secretes insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and what stimulates this secretion?
    Anterior pituitary, increasing IGF-RH in the blood
    Anterior pituitary, increasing GRH in the blood
    Kidney, increasing growth hormone in the blood
    Liver, increasing growth hormone in the blood
    Liver, increasing TSH in the blood

    Edema as a result of a hemodynamic disorder commonly occurs in each of the following locations EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
    Lungs
    Brain
    Subcutaneous tissues
    Peritoneal cavity
    Pancrease

    The tissue present between the articulating bones of the temporomandibular joint is called the
    Articular disc
    Fibrous capsule
    Synovial membrane
    Joint capsule
    Bilaminar zone

    The progression from a healthy gingival sulcus to gingivitis is associated with a shift towards
    Gram-positive cocci
    Gram-negative anaerobic rods
    Gram-positive filamentous rods
    Gram-negative anaerobic cocci
    Gram-positive facultative cocci

    Which of the following enzymes sythesizes polynucleotide chains from nucleotides and does NOT require a primer chain?
    Ligase
    Exonuclease
    Endonuclease
    DNA polymerase
    RNA polymerase

    Which of the following structures travels just posterior to the arch of the azygos vein?
    Hemiazygos vein
    Right vagus nerve
    Left vagus nerve
    Right lymphatic duct
    Greater splanchnic nerve

    An infeciton spreading by way of the lymphatic system from the vermiform appendix first enters the blood stream at the
    Renal vein
    Appendicular vein
    Inferior vena cava
    Brachiocephalic vein
    Internal thoracic vein

    Which of the following describes a major effect of sickle cell anemia?
    Absence of biphosphoglycerate binding of hemoglobin
    Substitution of 2 proximal histidines
    Decreased solubility of the deoxy form of hemoglobin
    A P50 value for hemoglobin similar to that of myoglobin
    Decreased number of subunits in hemoglobin
     
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