Here are some sample exam questions from a physiology class that I am taking. The directions are to choose the answer that is incorrect. 7) Hemorrhage (20% volume decrease, short and long term responses): a) Short term responses include venoconstriction leading to increases in end-diastolic volume, vasoconstriction leading to increased total peripheral resistances, and cardiac output below normal. b) Given no external interventions other than stopping hemorrhage, total whole blood volume will be slightly below normal 18 hours post hemorrhage but hematocrit will remain approximately 20% below normal. c) One of the short term responses to the decrease in MAP is that rennin release increases leading to increased plasma levels of angiotensin II which results in vasoconstriction and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. d) Decreased firing by arterial baroreceptors will result in simultaneous increases in sympathetic discharges of the SA node, increases in cardiac contractility and decreases in parasympathetic cardiac nerve discharges. e) 18-24 hours post-hemorrhage, decreases in capillary hydrostatic pressure and in plasma osmotic pressure will lead to bulk flow movement of ECF from the interstitial compartment to the plasma compartment. 8) Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP (all variables not mentioned are held constant): a) If ejection fraction increases, and parasympathetic cardiac nerve activity decreases, baroreceptor activity will increase. b) Under conditions where both cardiac ventricular muscle Ca+ ATPase activity in the sarcoplasmic reticular membrane increases, and ventricular muscle sarcomere lengths increase, MAP increases. c) Increases in plasma levels of peptide hormones angiotensin II and ADH are insufficient to increase MAP unless cardiac output increases concomitantly. d) Either venoconstriction or an increase blood volume will increase MAP due to the Frank-Starling mechanism. e) Causal reciprocal relationships between MAP and blood volume indicate that an increase in MAP induces a decrease in blood volume while increases in blood volume induce increases in MAP. Have fun! Ill tell if you have the right anwers later.