Probably not, but there is a small possibility of it happening. (At least in the Navy).
I have seen at least two instances of someone picked up for O4 two years early. The chance of this happening to someone in a civilian residency is zero.
The other time this would be an issue is if the people did GMO tours for long enough to be up for O5 while in residency. The person in civilian residency would have a nearly zero percent chance of being selected whereas the person on active duty would at least have a chance.