Mechanism explaining the sparing of the diaphragm and extraocular muscles in REM

Pershing

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Feb 22, 2009
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I have read many articles explaining the mechanism of atonia in REM sleep via the innervation of the medial medulla etc. However, I can't seem to find an article explaining the mechanism behind how the diaphragm and extraocular muscles are spared from the paralysis/atonia in REM sleep. Any thoughts or direction? Thanks.