Williams syndrome, a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, is caused by a deletion from the 7th chromosome. A child with Williams syndrome has a characteristic appearance (described normally as elf-like), is extremely social, musical, shows strong linguistic skills, and displays a highly diminished amygdala response to fearful facial expressions. Williams syndrome patients were administered a version of the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure (PRAM), a typical assessment of racial and gender stereotypes. The results are shown in figure 1. What conclusion can be drawn regarding gender and racial bias in decision making based on this study?
- (Choice A, Correct) The neural mechanisms for gender and racial stereotypes can be neurogenetically dissociable.
- (Choice B) There is a singular pathway that supports the neural mechanisms for both gender and racial stereotypes.
- (Choice C) The preservation of a gender based stereotype suggests that diminished amygdala reactivity may be related to race-role but not sex-role stereotype.
- (Choice D) The lack of social disinhibition in William’s individuals may account for the diminished amygdala reactivity to and perception of social threats.
So, I think the graph is showing that with decreased amygdala expression, that the participants have the same gender bias level, roughly, but have decreased racial bias. To me, this seems like amygdala function is correlated with racial bias expression. Using this logic, can anyone explain why Choice C is wrong? I think B and D are wrong because the data suggest that there is two separate pathways, one that is related to amygdala function.