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dentindi

10+ Year Member
May 15, 2008
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What are predominant linkages in glycogen between glucose units?
Alpha 1,4
Alpha 1,6
Beta 1,3
Beta 1,4
Beta 1,6
In fermentation, the final electron acceptor is
Water
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
An organic compound
An inorganic compound
Which of the following primary teeth is MOST likely to have an oblique ridge?
Maxillary canine
Maxillary first molar
Maxillary second molar
Mandibular first molar
Mandibular second molar
Each of the following structures is found in the infratemporal fossae EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Lingual nerve
Medial pterygoid muscle
Inferior alveolar nerve
Pterygopalatine ganglion
Pterygoid venous plexus
Each of the following cranial nerves is associated with the cavernous sinus EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Facial
Abducens
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Oculomotor
Calcium dipicolinate is present in large amounts in
Spores
Flagella
Mesosomes
Ribosomes
Mitochondria
When compared to the primary mandibular first moral, the primary mandibular second molar normally exhibits a GREATER number of which of the following?
Oblique ridges
Roots
Cusps
Cervical ridges
Transverse ridges
Which of the following describes the movement of glycine molecules in an electric field at a pH of 6.06 (the isoelectric pH for glycine)? The glycine molecules will
Not move
Move to the anode
Move to the cathode
Move to both anode and cathode
Zinc is an essential component of which of the following?
Pepsin
Amaylase
Hexokinase
Adenylate cyclase
Carbonic anhydrase
Which of the following cancers typically arises in teenagers and young adults?
Wilms' tumor
Angiosarcoma
Ewing's sarcoma
Multiple myeloma
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Each of the following muscles usually appears in the floor of the posterior triangle EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Sternohyoid
Medius scalene
Splenius capitis
Levator scapulae
Anterior belly of omohyoid
In an ideal intercuspal relation, the mesiofacial cusp of the maxillary first molar opposes which morphologic entity of the mandiubular first molar?
Central fossa
Lingual groove
Distofacial groove
Mesiofacial groove
Three days ago, a patient received her third immunization with tetanus toxoid. What class of antibodies specific for tetanus toxoid would one expect to find in her serum?
Similar concentrations of IgM and IgG
High concentrations of both IgM and IgD
Low concentrations of IgM; high concentration of IgE
Low concentration of IgM; high concentration of IgG
High concentration of IgM; low concentration of IgG
Facilitated diffusion DIFFERS from active transport in that net transport by facilitated diffusion
Has a transport maximum
Uses ATP as an energy source
Requires a concentration gradient
Occurs as an endergonic (positive G) process
Mucosa of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue develops primarily from
Rathke's pouch
Tuberculum impar
Foregut endoderm
Hypobranchial eminence
Lateral lingual swellings
Each of the following statements regarding aldosterone is correct EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Is a mineralocorticoid
Increases Na uptake from the kidneys
Production is stimulated by angiotensin II
Is produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex
Interstitial pulmonary inflammation is MOST characteristic of
Viral pneumonia
Bacterial pneumonia
Lung abscess
Bronchial asthma
Bronchopneumonia
The occlusal outline of a mandibular first molar is similar to a
Circle
Square
Hexagon
Pentagon
Rhomboid
Which of the following statements is correct with respect to mastication of food?
Food is masticated primarily in a border movement
Food is masticated primarily in lateral contacting movement
An ideal occlusion is a requisite for masticatory efficiency
Proper incisor contact is a requisite for masticatory efficiency
Indigestion is generally related to inadequate mastication of food
Human papillomaviruses 16 and 18 are strongly correlated with the appearance of
Genital warts
Plantar warts
Cutaneous warts
Uterine cancer
Cervical cancer
The sensory receptors serving the stretch reflex are classified as
Nociceptors
Chemoreceptors
Proprioceptors
Exteroceptors
Which of the following muscles participates in flexion at the gleno-humeral and the humero-ulnar joints?
Deltoid
Brachialis
Biceps brachii
Triceps brachii
Coracobrachiallis
During fetal development, blood is shunted from the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch by means of the
Foramen ovale
Sinus venosus
Ductus venosus
Ductus arteriosus
Foramen secundum
Which of the following factors MOST influences the lingual concavity of the maxillary anterior teeth and groove direction of the posterior teeth?
Anterior guidance
Angle of the eminence
Curve of the occlusion
Sideshift of the mandible (Bennett movement)
Direction of movement of the rotating condyle
Rough pneumococci grown in the presence of DNA from dead smooth pneumococci develop capsules. This is an example of bacterial
Mutation
Dominance
Conjugation
Transduction
Transformation
Which of the following base pairs promotes helix stabilization in DNA but does NOT do so in RNA?
G-C
A-T
G-U
C-T
A-U
Blood from the cephalic vein drains into which of the following veins?
Basilic
Brachiocephalic
Axillary
Internal thoracic
Superior vena cava
The junction between the tooth surface and the crevicular epithelium is composed of which of the following?
Cementoid
Tight junction
Intermediate filaments
Basal lamina-like structure
Interstitial crevicular fluid
If the anticodon on transfer RNA is 5' ACG 3' then which of the following is its corresponding codon on messenger-RNA?
5' CGT 3'
5' CGU 3'
5' TGC 3'
5' UAG 3'
5' UGC 3'
On the crown of the primary maxillary first molar, the mesial surface normally
Is larger than the distal surface of the same tooth
Exhibits a concave lingual outline
Is wider occlusocervically than buccolingually
Exhibits a straight cervical line
Is wider buccolingually at the occlusal table than at the cervical third
Staphylococcus aureus MOST commonly causes
Skin infections
Septicemia
Sore throat
Chronic infections
Exogenous infections
Each of the following is characteristic of herpes zoster EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
Unilateral
Usually involves 1-3 dermatomes
Occurs repeatedly in immunocompetent patients
Only occurs in an individual having a latent VZV infection
More common in individuals who are immunocompromised
Which of the following describes the contact relationship between a maxillary central incisor and a maxillary lateral incisor?
Contact is offset to the lingual
Contact is centered incisocervically
Lingual embrassure is larger than the facial embrassure
Incisal embrassure is the largest of all the embrasures
Which of the following shows a relative INCREASE as the dental pulp ages?
Number of fibroblasts
Number of odontoblasts
Number of blood vessels
Size of the pulp chamber
Amount of fibrous connective tissue
The rapid emergence of new strains of human immunodeficiency virus is primarily the result of
The frequent genomic recombination between human immunodeficiency virus and other retroviruses
Frequent errors in the translation of viral proteins
The lack of immune response to the viral envelope glycoprotein
Frequent errors introduced by viral reverse transcriptase
The imprecision of protein cleavage by viral protease
Mesial and distal pulp horns are more likely to be found in which of the following teeth?
Maxillary central incisors
Mandibular central incisors
Mandibular canines
Maxillary first premolars
Mandibular first premolars
The major sensory nerve to the parietal pericardium branches from which of the following nerves?
Vagus
Muscuophrenic
Intercostal
Phrenic
Internal thoracic
Which of the following muscles is MOST concerned in quiet respiration?
Rhomboid
Diaphragm
Subclavius
Sacrospinalis
Pectoralis major
Before swallowing can be initialized, afferent information must be received
From muscle spindles, indicating the consistency of a soft bolus of food
In a lesser amount from nociceptors indicating a soft bolus of food
From mucosal mechanoreceptors, indicating the consistency of a soft bolus of food
From pharyngeal taste receptors, indicating the consistency of a soft bolus of food
When the mandible moves to the right, the mesiolingual cusp of the maxillary right first molar passes through which groove of the mandibular right first molar?
Mesiomarginal
Distofacial
Mesiofacial
Lingual
Central
The antigenic component of which of the following vaccines is a capsular antigen?
Influenza
Poliovirus
Hepatitis B
Haemophilus influenza
Coupled respiration requires each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCPETION?
ADP
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
Electron donor
Inorganic phosphate
As the severity of periodontal disease progresses, there is an increase in plasma cells that produce which of the following?
sIgA
IgD
IgE
IgG
IgM
Which of the following is a complication of cirrhosis?
Splenic atrophy
Hepatic angioma formation
Obstruction of portal circulation
Increased plasma protein formation
Decreased central venous pressure
Which of the following is produced when a mutation occurs in an enzyme controlling a signal pathway involved in cell growth processes?
Epigene
Antigene
Oncogene
Monogene
Transgene
DNA that is complementary to mRNA can be made using which of the following?
A plasmid
DNA ligase
A retrovirus
RNA polymerase
Reverse transcriptase
Which of the following groups of organs is retroperitoneal?
Pancrease, transverse colon, and descending colon
Pancrease, stomach, and ovary
Kidney, transverse colon, and ovary
Ureter, gallbladder, and transverse colon
Kidney, adrenal, and rectum
Each of the following derives from a pharyngeal pouch EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Thymus
Parathyroid
Parotid gland
Auditory tube
Palatine tonsil
SEE question 49 (Diagram involved)
Which of the following is caused by vitamin D deficiency in adults?
Rickets
Myxedema
Acromegaly
Osteomalacia
Osteitis fibrosa cystica
In unilateral balanced occlusion, contact between lower buccal cusps and upper buccal cusps, along with simultanwous contact between lower lingual cusps and upper lingual cusps, will MOST likely occur in which of the following types of mandibular movements?
Laterotrusive
Mediotrusive
Straight retrusive
Straight protrusive
The buccal mucosa typically has which of the following epithelia?
Simple columnar
Pseudostratified columnar
Non-keratinzed, stratified squamous
Parakeratinized, stratified squamous
Orthokeratinized, stratified squamous
The apex of the horizontal plane Gothic-arch tracing represents which of the following positions?
Maximum opening
Centric relation
Lateral protrusive
Rest position
Which of the following streptococcal virulence factors acts as a superantigen, mediating a variety of cytokine-induced effects that can result in life-threatening disease?
Pyrogenic exotoxin
Hyaluronidase
Streptokinase
Streptolysin O
Preganglionic parasympathitic fibers that synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion travel in which of the following nerves?
Maxillary
Lesser palatine
Lesser petrosal
Greater palatine
Greater petrosal
Initiation of calcification for the mandibular central incisor normally occurs at
3-4 months of age
1 year of age
2-3 years of age
4-5 years of age
6-7 years of age
Each of the following viruses is potentially capable of causing cell transformation EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Retrovirus
Herpesvirus
Picornavirus
Hepatitis B virus
Human papillomavirus
Of the primary maxillary teeth, the cervical ridge would stand out MOST prominently as a distinct entity on which surface of which molar?
First Distofacial
First Mesiofacial
Second Distofacial
Second Mesiolingual
Second Distolingual
IL-1 is primarily produced by which of the following?
Neutrophils
Macrophages
Plasma cells
T-helper cells
T-suppressor cells
During endodontic therapy, one will usually find two pulp canals in which of the following?
Mandibular canine
Distofacial root of a maxillary molar
Distal root of a mandibular first molar
Mesial root of a mandibular first molar
Lingual root of a maxillary first molar
Which of the following statements BEST applies to saliva?
Phosphate is the main pH buffer
Supplies sialate for additional mucins
Main source of enzymes for protein digestion
Supplies calcium and phosphate for remineralization
Undersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite at neutral pH
Smooth muscle contains each of the following muscle proteins EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Actin
Myosin
Troponin
Tropomyosin
Cell bodies of neurons mediating proprioception from the periodontal lifament of the maxillary first molar lie in the
Semilunar ganglion
Motor nucleus of V
Spinal nucleus of V
Chief sensory nucleus of V
Mesencephalic nucleus of V
Which of the following can be used to distinguish the palatine tonsil from the pharyngeal tonsil on the histologic level?
General shape of the tonsil
Number of lymphatic nodules
Type of epithelium associated with it
Type of lymphocytes present
Presence or absence of Hassall's corpuscles
The movement in the upper compartment of the temporomandibular joint is rotation and translation.The movement in the lower compartment is translation.
Both statements are TRUE
Both statements are FALSE
The first statement is TRUE, and the second is FALSE
The first statement is FALSE, and the second is TRUE
As blood flows through the periodontal membrane, tremendous pressures occur in response to forceful occlusion. Blood flow is temporarily reduced, but platelets do not aggregate because of the presence of
Ca
ADP
Thrombin
Thromboxane A2
Prostacyclin (PgI2)
Which of the following parts of the hypophysis is the site of oxytocin release?
Pars nervosa
Infundibulum
Pars distalis
Pars tuberalis
Pars intermedia
The non-working condyle performs which of the following movements?
Straight forward
Forward and downward
Downward, forward, and lateral
Downward, backward, and medial
Downward, forward, and medial
Which of the following substances is the predominant source of ATP at MODERATE levels (for greater than 60 minutes) of activity?
Amino acids
Fatty acids
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Which of the following premotes the release of bile from the gallbladder?
Gasrin
Secretin
Galla
Bombesin
Cholecystokinin
Which of the following teeth represents the one MOST likely to present with three roots?
Mandibular central incisor
Mandibular second premolar
Mandibular canine
Maxillary first premolar
Maxillary second premolar
Which of the following chemical agents is approved as an immersion sterilant?
Iodophors
Ethyl alcohol
Glutaraldehydes
Synthetic phenolics
Sodium hypochlorite
Granulation tissue is comprised of each of the following components EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Fibroblasts
Plasma cells
Capillary buds
Endothelial cells
Newly formed collagen
Following eruption and initial occlusal contact in the oral cavity, a tooth will continue to erupt in order to compensate for occlusal wear. In response to this continuous eruption, which of the following is deposited at the apex of the root?
Primary dentin
Secondary dentin
Reparative dentin
Cellular cementum
Acellular cementum
Which of the following would produce the greatest DECREASE in resistance in a single artery 2 mm long and with a radius of 1.2 mm?
A halving in length
A doubling in length
An increase in radius by a factor of 2
A decrease in blood viscosity by a factor of 2
Which of the following BEST describes a centric holding cusp of a mandibular left second molar?
It is the distofacial cusp and occludes in the embrassure between maxillary first and second molars
It is the distofacial cusp and occludes in the central fossa of a maxillary second molar
It is the distolingual cusp and occludes in the embrassure between maxillary first and second molars
It is the distolingual cusp and occludes in the central fossa of a maxillary second molar
Oral streptococci are usually
Gamma-hemolytic
Alpha-hemolytic
Beta-hemolytic
Non-hemolytic
The cell membrane is LEAST permeable to which of the following substances?
O2
CO2
H2O
Sodium
Ethanol
Which of the following types of dentin is the MOST highly mineralized?
Carious
Predentin
Intertubular
Interglobular
Intra(peri)tubular
Each of the following can be found in the dental pulp EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Nerve tissue
Blood vessels
Cementoblasts
Lymph vessels
According to the Spaulding Classification System for contaminated items and srufaces, semi-critical items should be reprocessed by
Exposure to ethylene oxide
A spray-wipe-spray technique
Immersion in a tuberculocidal disinfectant
Washing with a chlorhexidine fluconate disinfectant
Heat stabilization if the material is heat stable
In the contractile cycle, the dissociation of the actomyosin complex results MOST immediately from
ATP hydrolysis
Release of ATP hydrolysis products
ATP replacing ADP on the myosin heads
Tilting of the myosin heads (crossbridges)
Which of the following represents the consequence of the fact that DNA strans are complementary?
Hairpin loop structures can be generated
They will always have identical sequences
Separated strands are able to reassociate
They cannot get back together once separated
Which of the following predominates in steroid producing cells?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Phagosomes
Nucleolus
The spacing between anterior teeth in the primary dentition is MOST frequently caused by
Thumb-sucking
Tongue thrusting
Transseptal gingival fibers
The growth of the dental arches
The pressure form succedaeous teeth
Each of the following types of cells is phagocytic EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Monocyte
Histiocyte
Neutrophil
Macrophage
Lymphocyte
Which of the following is MOST likely to promote depolymerization of extracellular matrix?
Corisone
Collagenase
Chymotrypsin
Hyaluronidase
In the intercuspal position, which of the following anterior teeth has the potential of contacting both anterior and posterior antagonists?
Maxillary lateral incisor
Mandibular lateral incisor
Maxillary canine
Mandibular canine
In the oral region, the lingual artery usually is found between the
Lingual and hypoglossal nerves
Mylohyoid and geniohyoid muscles
Hyoglossus and genioglossus muscles
Sublingual duct and hypoglossal nerve
Oral mucous membrane and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle
Each of the following is a type of inflammatory exudate EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCPETION?
Suppurative
Fibrous
Purulent
Fibrinous
Pseudomembranous
A substance alters the rate of an enzymatic reaction by binding to the enzyme at a site other than the active site. The substance described is a (an)
Uncoupler
Covalent modifier
Allosteric inhibitor
Competitive inhibitor
Post-translational modifier
On a maxillary first molar, the occlusal outline contains two obtuse and two acute angles. The acute line angles are
Mesiolingual and distolingual
Mesiofacial and distiolingual
Mesiolingual and distofacial
Mesiofacial and distofacial
Distofacial and distolingual
When T-cells from patients who have chronic periodontal disease react with certain plaque bacterial antigens, they produce each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Immunoglobulin
IL-2
TNF-B
IFN-y
During which of the following would blood flow to the coronary arteries be GREATEST in a resting individual
Isovolumic contraction
Ventricular ejection
Atrial contraction
Ventricular relaxation
Atropine prevents the secretion of saliva resulting from stimulation of the chorda tympani because it
Denatures the salivary gland proteins
Prevents the action of acetylcholine on the secreting cells
Prevents release of acetylcholine by sympathetic postganglionic fibers
Prevents release of acetylcholine in autonomic ganglia
If the point of a needle enters the parotid gland during an inferior alveolar injection and solution is deposited in the gland, the MOST likely result is
Paralysis of the buccinator muscle
Paralysis of the temporalis muscle
Paresthesia of the lingual nerve
Paralysis of temporal tympani
A hematoma of the pterygoid venous plexus
Which of the following promotes edema?
Increased blood proteins
Increased sodium excretion
Decreased lymphatic drainage
Decreased venule blood pressure
Increased plasma osmotic pressure
Which of the following BEST describes the primary ionic movement during the depolarization phase of a nerve action potential?
Potassium ions moving from inside to outside the membrane
Potassium ions moving into the fiber from interstitial fluid
Large organic-negative ions moving from inside the fiber to outside the fiber
Sodium ions moving from inside the membrane to outside the membrane
Sodium ions moving from outside the membrane to inside the membrane
A mature ovum is expelled from which of the following?
Corpus luteum
Corpus albicans
Graafian follicles
Corpus hemorrhagicum
Which of the following is the characteristic immunoglobulin present in human external secretions (i.e. saliva, tears, intestinal juice)?
Monomeric IgE
Monomeric IgA
Polymeric IgG4
Polymeric IgA
Secretory IgD
Which of the following is the cellular organelle that contains many types of hydorlytic enzymes?
Lysosome
Centrosome
Mitochondrion
Golgi apparatus
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ordinarily, a 6 year old child would have which of the following teeth clinically visible?
All primary teeth only
All primary teeth and permanent first molars
Primary posterior teeth, permanent first molars, and central incisors
Primary canines, permanent first molars, and permanent mandibular incisors
 

dentindi

10+ Year Member
May 15, 2008
28
0
Status
Which of the following is the lobe of the cerebral hemisphere that lies in the middle cranial fossa?
Frontal
Temporal
Occipital
Parietal
In an ideal intercuspal position, the distoincisal aspect of a mandibular central incisor opposes which structure of which maxillary incisor?
Lingual fossa of a lateral
Mesial marginal ridge of a lateral
Distal marginal ridge of a central
Mesial marginal ridge of a central
Lingual fossa of a central
Virulence of the pneumococcus is associated with its
Pyrogenic exotoxin
C-reactive protein
Content of nucleoprotein
Production of streptolysin
Capsular polysaccharide
Which of the following statements BEST describes hydroxyapatite in enamel?
Has a nonpolar surface
Has 10 ions in each unit cell
Contains no ion substitutions
Has a higher solubility than fluorapatite
Has a solubility that decreases as the pH decreases
Which of the following epithelial types is normally associated with the internal lining of the majority of the tubular gastrointestinal tract?
Simple columnar
Simple cuboidal
Simple squamous
Stratified cuboidal
Stratified squamous
Prior to surgery, an anxious patient has a higher systolic blood pressure than previously noted. Which of the following represents the MOST likely reason?
Cardiac shock
Anaphylactic shock
Atrial fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation
Decreased arterial compliance
Which of the following skin lesions is generally considered precancerous?
Psoriasis
Verruca vulgaris
Intradermal nevus
Actinic keratosis
Seborrheic keratosis
Which of the following is a branching, filamentous, microorganism that is a normal inhabitant of the gingival crevice and tonsillar crypts?
Aspergillus niger
Actinomyces naeslundii
Penicillium notatum
Trichophyton mentagrophytes
Lactobacillus casei
Glucose can be made from each of the following substances EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Lactate
Acetyl CoA
Glycerol
Pyruvate
Fructose
In an ideal intercuspal position, the distolingual cusp of a maxillary first molar opposes the
Central fossa of the mandibular first molar
Lingual sulcus of the mandibular first molar
Mesial fossa of the mandibular second molar
Mesial marginal ridge of the mandibular second molar
Facial embrasure between the mandibular first and second molars
Which of the following oral tissues contains the LEAST collagen?
Bone
Dentin
Mucosa
Enamel
Cementum
Each of the following statements describes a contributor to the initiation of mineralization of bone EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Holes or pores in collagen fibers
Release of matrix vesicles by osteoblasts
Release of acid phosphatase by osteocytes trapped in lacunae
Alkaline phasphatase activity in osteoblasts and matrix vesicles
Degredation of matrix pyrophosphate to release an inorganic phosphate group
Increased pulmonary ventilation observed at high altitudes results directly from the effect of hypoxia on the
Carotid body
Aortic sinus
Hypothalamus
Carotid sinus
Respiratory center
Juxtamedular and cortical nephrons differ primarily in
Filtration fraction
Location of macula densa
Length of proximal tubule
Length of distal convulted tubule
Length of the thin segment of the loop of Henle
Which of the following represents the primary function of sIgA?
Aggregates microorganisms and prevents colonization
Activates complement in secretory fluids
Promotes phagocytosis by monocytes
Activates mast cells
Activates NK cels
Which of the following BEST describes the occlusal outline of a maxillary first molar from an occlusal view?
Ovoid
Square
Rectangle
Pentagonal
Rhomboidal
The nasopalatine nerve reaches mucosa in the oral cavity via which of the following foramina?
Incisive
Infraorbital
Lesser palatine
Greater palatine
Pterygopalatine
Which of the following represents the total number of teeth in the permanent dentition that normally possess a cingulum?
4
6
8
12
16
Cellular tropism by viruses is dependent on which of the following?
Host cell DNA homology to viral DNA
Temperature of host cell incubation
Gamma-interferon production
Cell surface receptors
Viral enzyme synthesis
Which of the following is an allosteric effector of an ezymatic reaction?
Competitive inhibitor
Noncompetitive inhibitor
Substance that binds to the substrate
Substance affecting enzymatic activity by binding to the active site
Substance affecting enzymatic activity by binding to non-active sites
Odontoblasts secrete the organic components of the dentin matrix. The fibrous matrix is MOSTLY
Keratin
Reticular fibers
Type 1 collagen
Type II and III colagen
Reabsorbed as the dentin matures
Which of the following BEST describes the normal root of the mandibular canine, in cross section at the CEJ
Circular, symmetrical
Triangular, symmetrical
Ovoid, symmetrical
Ovoid, but wider mesiodistally at the lingual
Ovoid, but wider mesiodistally at the labial
Collagen degredation that is observed in chronic periodontal disease can result directly from the action of collagenase enzymes of oral microbial origin. Such enzymes have been demonstrated as component systems of
Porphyromonas species
Lepthothrix buccalis
Entamoeba gingivalis
Enterococcus faecalis
Veillonella species
Hormones that exert their effects through the activation of second messengers are
Lipophilic
Usually water soluble peptide/protien hormones
Initially bound to cytoplasmic hormone receptors
Secreted by ovaries, testes, adrenal cortex, and placenta
Which of the following exhibits phagocytic activity in the central nervous system?
Ependymal cell
Microglial cell
Oligodendrocyte
Fibrous astrocyte
Protoplamsic astrocyte
Each of the following coenzymes is a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
NAD
Biotin
Coenzyme A
Thiamine pyrophasphate
Identify the anterior tooth that MOST frequently exhibits a bifurcated root and identify the positions of the roots.
Maxillary lateral mesial and distal
incisor
Maxillary lateral Facial and lingual
incisor
Maxillary canine Facial and lingual
Mandibular canine Facial and lingual
Which of the following ligaments is MOST often damaged in an inferior alveolar nerve block?
Lateral
Capsular
Stylohyoid
Stylomandibular
Sphenomandibular
Which of the following enzymes seals nicks in DNA?
Exonuclease
Endonuclease
Ligase
DNA polymerase
RNA polymerase
Which of the following teeth is the LEAST likely tooth to have a bifurcation of the root?
Mandibular canine
Mandibular central incisor
Maxillary central incisor
Mandibular lateral incisor
Maxillary second premolar
Hepatitis C virus infection is MOST often transmitted through
Sexual contact
Oral secretions
Blood transfusions
The fecal-oral route
Respiratory droplets
Neurofibromatosis type I is characterized by which of the following conditions?
Multiple mucosal neuromas
Perioral melanotic freckles
Medullary carcinoma of thyroid
Development of visceral carcinoma
Multiple pigmented macules of the skin
Each of the following structures increases the surface area of the small intestine EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
Villi
Rugae
Microvilli
Brush border
Circular folds
Which of the following represents the slight incisocervical concavity on the labial crown surface of the canines that is found in the incisal third, just mesial to the labial ridge?
Mesial fossa
Mesiolingual fissa
Mesial marginal ridge
Mesiolabial line angle
Mesiolabial developmental depression
Submucosal glands are usually located in the
Fundus of stomach
Duodenum
Appendix
Jejunum
Colon
Which of the following is an endogenous fungus that is capable of producing an opportunistic infection?
Candida
Rhizopus
Blastomyces
Aspergillus
Cryptococcus
Which of the following pathogens is the single MOST common cause of sexually transmitted disease in the U.S.?
Treponema pallidum
Haemophilus ducrey
Chlamydia trachomatis
Herpes simplex virus
Human immunodeficiency virus
Which of the following is the pathway that results in the formation of glucose in the liver from lactate produced in muscle?
Cori cycle
Glycolysis
Citric acid cycle
Pentose phosphate pathway
Which of the following represents the primary function of cementum?
Attach Sharpey’s fibers
Protect the root from caries
Repair traumatic injuries of the root
Supply nutrition to the periodontal ligament
Aintain the width of the periodontal ligament
Compared to a maxillary second premolar, a maxillary first premolar has
Two roots, on facial and one lingual
Three developmental grooves
One root containing two root canals
A shorter central groove
Two roots, one mesial and one distal
A 9-year-old boy has tinea capitis. If he is receiving appropriate therapy then he is MOST likely being treated with an
Anti-viral agent
Anti-mycotic agent
Anti-bacterial agent
Anti-parasitic agent
A pronounced developmental groove is usually present on a marginal ridge of which of the following teeth?
Maxillary canine
Maxillary first premolar
Mandibular second premolar
Mandibular first molar
Maxillary second molar
MOST cases of choriocarcinoma are discovered by the appearance of a rising titer in blood or urine of which of the following?
Acid phosphatase
Alpha-fetoprotein
Alkaline phasphatase
Carcinoembryonic antigen
Human chorionic gonadotropin
Glucose reabsorption in the nephron is usually completed in which of the following?
Distal tubule
Loop of Henle
Collecting duct
Proximal tubule
Which of the following represents the number and the location of cusps on the Y-type mandibular second premolar?
No lingual and on facial
One lingual and one facial
One lingual and two facial
Two lingual and one facial
Two lingual and two facial
Which of the following primary teeth is usually bilaterally symmetrical when viewed facially and incisally?
Mandibular central incisor
Maxillary central incisor
Maxillary lateral incisor
Mandibular lateral incisor
Mandibular canine
Pernicious anemia is characteirzed by each of the following symptoms EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Easy fatigability
Atrophic glossitis
Peripheral neuropathy
Atrophy of the gastric mucosa
Microcytic hypochromic red blood cells
Which of the following nerves pierces the thyrohyoid membrane?
Inferior laryngeal
Recurrent laryngeal
External branch of the superior laryngeal
Internal branch of the superior laryngeal
Pharyngeal branch of the vagus
Each of the following conditions involves changes in numbers of cells in an organ or tissue EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Aplasia
Hyperplasia
Hypoplasia
Metaplasia
The marginal ridges are more prominent on the lingual surface of which of the following incisors?
Maxillary central
Mandibular central
Maxillary lateral
Mandibular lateral
Which of the following directly catalyzes urea formation in a cell?
Urease
Uricase
Arginase
Glutaminase
Atretic follicles are characteristic of which of the following?
Integument of scalp
Thyroid
Pituitary
Lymph gland
Ovary
Which of the following conditions is a significant risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma?
Cholestasis
Portal hypertension
Cholelithiasis
Reye’s syndrome
Hepatitis C
Where is the lingual height of contour located on a mandibular first premolar?
Occlusal third
Junction of the occlusal and middle thirds
Middle third
Junction of the middle and cervical thirds
Cervical third
Cigarette smoking has been etiologically linked to each of the following cancers EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Lung
Colon
Oral cavity
Esophagus
Urinary bladder
Which of the following teeth has the greatest cervico-occlusal crown height?
Maxillary first premolar
Mandibular second premolar
Maxillary first molar
Mandibular second molar
Maxillary second molar
The oblique ridge of the maxillary molars extends between which two cusps?
Mesiofacial and distofacial
Mesiolingual and distolingual
Mesiolingual and distofacial
Mesiofacial and meiolingual
Mesiofacial and distolingual
A practitioner administers a 90:10 nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture to a patient, causing respiratory depression. Which of the following conditions is likely to result?
Metabolic acidosis
Respiratory acidosis
Metabolic alkalosis
Respiratory alkalosis
Test item #’s 161-172 refer to the following testlet
A 23 year-old female presents with complaints of difficulty in opening her mouth and a low-grade fever of several days’ duration. The medical histroy indicates a recent positive PPD skin test, and the patient is taking rifampin (Rifadin). The extra-oral exam shows diffuse swelling at the angle of the right mandible and lateral neck. Oral exam shows gingival swelling and erythema around partially erupted Tooth #32.
Rifampin (Rifadin) is effective in treating active tuberculosis because it targets which of the following pathways?
Mitosis
Replication
Translation
Transcription
mRNA splicing
This patient’s internal temperature is monitored by central thermoreceptors located in the
Medulla
Cerebellum
Hypothalamus
Anterior ituitary
Posterior pituitary
MOST plasma cells that form in the cervical lymph nodes will be found in which of the following areas?
Paracortex
Lymph nodules
Medullary cords
Germinal centers
Trabecular sinuses
Which of the following histopathologic findings will characterize lymph node involvement with mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lateral neck?
Fibrosis and scarring of the lymph node cortex
Hyperplasia of the cortex and presence of Reed-Sternberg cells
Granulomas with multinucleate giant cells and caseation necrosis
Hyperplasia of the cortex and a focally dense infiltrate of neutrophils
Swelling at the angle of the mandible and the lateral neck MOST likely resulted from deflection of exudates by which of the following structures?
Sublingual gland
Mylohyoid muscle
Hyoglossus muscle
Buccopharyngeal fascia
Pterygomandibular raphe
Each of the following muscles is constrained in function due to the patient’s condition EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
Digastric
Mylohyoid
Geniohyoid
Medial pterygoid
Lateral pterygoid
This patient’s gingival swelling will elicit sensations of pain that will travel via which of the following?
Chorda tympani
Buccal branch of the facial nerve
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Buccal nerve
Temporal branch of the facial nerve
The tissue swelling associated with inflammation in this patient is due to which of the following factors?
Vasodilating kinins
Increased blood pressure
Increased serum osmolarity
Decreased capillary permeability
If Tooth #32 is infected, then the infection will typically spread to each of the following fascial spaces EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Parotid
Temporal
Masseteric
Buccopharyngeal
Lymphatic fluid from the area of infected Tooth #32 will drain INITIALLY to which of the following nodes?
Buccal
Submental
Deep cervical
Submandibular
Superficial cervical
(I DON’T AGREE WITH THEIR ANSWER SO BE CAREFUL ON THIS WITH THE REAL EXAM. IT MIGHT HELP TO LOOK THIS UP. IF ANYONE HAS ADDITION INFO ON THIS, IT WOULD BE APPRECIATED)
A radiograph of Tooth #32 shows two well-formed roots. When sectioning this tooth to separate the roots and simplify extraction, which of the following BEST describes how the cut should be made?
Bucco-lingually through the crown and furcation
Bucco-lingually through the pulp horns
Mesio-distally through the crown and furcation
Mesio-distally through the crown at the level of the CEJ
Prior to extracting Tooth #32, surgery is done to exopse the entire crown of the tooth. Which of the following should the dentist expect to see?
The buccal-lingual dimension of the crown is greater than the mesial-distal dimension
The mesial-distal dimension of the crown is greater that the buccal-lingual dimension
The buccal-lingual and mesial-distal dimensions of the crown are the same
The crown of Tooth #32 is smaller than the crown of Tooth #1
Test item #’s 173-181 refer to the following testlet
A 7-year-old male with a histroy of asthma presents for an emergency appointment. He suffered a fall in which he struck his anterior maxilla, lacerating his lips. Oral examination reveals bleeding from the gingival sulcus around the maxillary central incisors, and these teeth are mobile. The maxillary lateral incisors are mobile but do not exhibit bleeding. During the intial exam, the patient demonstrates acut dyspnea.
During the intitial oral examination, the dentist suspects onset of an acut asthmatic attack. Each of the following is a common manifestation of an asthmatic attack EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Airway edema
Bronchospasm
Decreased surfactant
Increased mucous secretion
Increased airway resistance
Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is MOST active in this patient’s respiratory difficulties?
IgD
IgA
IgE
IgM
IgG
Treatment of this patient’s respiratory symptoms requires activation of which of the following pathways?
Cholinergic nicotinic
Cholinergic muscarinic
Adrenergic Alpha-1
Adrenergic Beta-1
Adrenergic Beta-2
The immediate consequences of this patient’s respiratory difficulty include each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Hypoxia
Tachycardia
Hypercapnia
Acute respiratory acidosis
Increased renal bicarbonate production
Each of the following statements regarding the pathogenesis of this patient’s respiratory difficulty is correct EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Multinucleated giant cells phagocytize extrinsic antigens
Protaglandin D elicits bronchoconstriction and vasodilation
Chemotactic factors recruit and activate eosinophils and neutrophils
Platelet activating factor aggregates platelets and induces hisamine release
Leukotrienes C4, D4, and E4 cause prolonged bronchoconstriction and mucin secretion
Laceration of the patient’s lips resulted in bleeding from which of the following arteries?
Nasopalatine
Nasal branches of the facial
Labial branches of the facial
Buccal branch of the maxillary
Incisive branches of the infraorbital
If there is a fracture of the maxillary bone adjacent to the traumatized central incisors, then nociception terminates centrally within which of the following?
Trigeminal ganglion
Spinal tract of V
Spinal subnucleus oralis of V
Spinal subnucleus caudalis of V
Main (chief) sensory nucleus of V
On a panoramic radiograph of this patient, the dentist will expect to see each of the following features EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Primary maxillary lateral incisors with partially resorbed roots
Partially erupted maxillary central incisors with incomplete root closure at the apex
Partially erupted mandibular lateral incisors with incomplete root closure at the apex
Fully erupted mandibular central incisors with complete root formation and closure at the apex
Fully erupted mandibular first molars with incomplete root formation and non-closure at the apex
A radiograph of the maxillary central incisors reveals a small, calcified radiopaque mass between the roots of Teeth #8 and #9. Which of the following is the MOST likely reason for this mass?
Distodens
Mesiodens
Talon cusp
Dens in dente
Peg lateral incisor
Test item #’s 182-195 refer to the following testlet
A 15-year-old male presents for emergency card. He is non-compliant with his type I diabetes refimen, and he suffered a fall while having an insulin reaction. He struck his chin and lacerated his tongue. Upon opening, his mandible deviates to the left. A panoramic radiograph reveals a fracture of the left condylar neck.
Before examining this patient, the dentist notes that the standard medical emergency kit contains an ampule of glucagon. For which of the following reasons would glucagon be used?
Acts as a source of glucose for the hypoglycemic patient
Promotes glycogen formation in the hyperflycemic patient
Promotes glycogenolysis in the hypoglycemic patient
Stimulates secretion of insulin in the hyperglycemic patient
The patient’s “insulin reaction” represented a sudden fal in blood glucose because he had taken his normal insulin dose but did not eat breakfast. Each of the following is a clincal manifestation of hypoglycemia EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Coma
Dizziness
Confusion
Convulsion
Hyperventilation
Which of the following glucose transporters was responsible for the patient’s “insulin reaction”?
GLUT-1
GLUT-2
GLUT-3
GLUT-4
GLUT-5
Which of the following cells found in the pancreas is responsible for secreting insulin?
Alpha
Beta
Delta
Acinar
Centroacinar
Each of the following is a likely long-term complication of poorly controlled type I diabetes mellitus EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCPETION?
Pancreatic carcinoma
Hyaline arteriolosclerosis
Proliferative retinopathy
Nodular glomerulosclerosis
Peripheral symmetric neuropathy
Sudden onset of a seizure in this patient would MOST likely be due to which of the following?
Hypoxia
Ketoacidosis
Hyponatremia
Hypoglycemia
Hyperglycemia
The patient’s tongue laceration will likely damage taste buds found on?
Filiform papilla
Fungiform papilla
Circumvallate papilla
Ventrum of the tongue
Pain impulses from the patient’s fractured mandible are carried by which of the following nerves?
Lingual
Inferior alveolar
Auriculotemporal
Zygomaticotemporal
Nerve to lateral pterygoid
Each of the following events will occur during fracture repair EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Blood clot forms
Bridging callus forms
Periosteal callus forms
New endochondral bone forms
New osteons grow across the callus
The deviation of the patient’s mandible is MOST likely due to lack of function of which of the following muscles?
Left medial pterygoid
Right medial pterygoid
Masseter
Left lateral pterygoid
Right lateral pterygoid
Monosynaptic jaw closing reflexes might be disrupted in which of the following areas?
Locus coenurus
Globus pallidus
Motor nucleus of V
Mesencephalic nucleus of V
Motor nucleus of VII
Muscular contractions might result in displacement of the left condyle. Into which of the following areas will the condyle MOST likely be displace?
Oral cavity
Maxillary sinus
Temporal fossa
Middle ear cavity
Infratemporal fossa
With the fracture of the left condyle, the condylar head remains in the mandibular fossa due to which of the following ligaments?
Periodontal
Otomandibular
Stylomandibular
Sphenomandibular
Temporomandibular
Clinical examination revelas that the lingual cusp on Tooth #5 is broken off. This is MOST likely due to wich of the following mandibular movements during trauma?
Left mesiotrusive
Right mesiotrusive
Protrusive
Left laterotrusive
Right laterotrusive
Test item #’s 196-200 refer to the following testlet
The dentist is called in to assist in the postmortam identifaction of an unknown person. Parts of a cadaver are presented, including portion of the skull with bones, teeth, and intact soft tissue.
Upon viewing the cadaver, the dentist suddenly feels faint, and experiences vasodepressor syncope. This finding might be assonciated with each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Pallor
Diaphoresis
Decreased heart rate
Decreased cerevral blood flow
Increased systmeic blood pressure
Examination of the right side of the cadaver’s skull reveals a fracture running through the petrotympanic fissure. Which of the following structures is MOST likely affected by such a fracture?
Chorda tympani
Auriculotemporal nerve
Mandibular branch of V
Middle meningeal artery
Accessory meningeal artery
Examination of a remnant of the cranial base exhibits a fracture of the cribiform plate. Damage to this area typically results in which of the following conditions?
“Tunnel” vision
Loss of sense of taste
Loss of sense of smell
Damage to optic chiasm
Damage to speech areas
Examination of a portion of the left mandible shows a torn piece of muscle attached on the medial side near the angle of the mandible. This is which of the following muscles?
Buccal
Masseter
Temporalis
Medial pterygoid
Inferior head of the pterygoid
One piece of examined soft tissue contains obvious glandular tissue. Histological examination reveals that it is composed of purely serous acini. This is MOST likely which of the following glands?
Buccal
Parotid
Sublingual
Submandibular
Posterior palatal
 

IndianGraduate

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dentindi...did u just take all these from a released exam and type these on here? cuz i was doing the released exams and SO many of those seem familiar....but i dont remember which exam its from...do u not have the answers to the released exams?
 
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32pearls

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If you could number these questions & answers & space between each set of questions.....it would have been easier to answer
 

dentindi

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answers r as follows

What are predominant linkages in glycogen between glucose units?
Alpha 1,4
Alpha 1,6
Beta 1,3
Beta 1,4
Beta 1,6

In fermentation, the final electron acceptor is
Water
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
An organic compound
An inorganic compound

Aerobic respiration
Final electron acceptor is O2


Which of the following primary teeth is MOST likely to have an oblique ridge?
Maxillary canine
Maxillary first molar
Maxillary second molar
Mandibular first molar
Mandibular second molar

Each of the following structures is found in the infratemporal fossae EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Lingual nerve
Medial pterygoid muscle
Inferior alveolar nerve
Pterygopalatine ganglion
Pterygoid venous plexus

Each of the following cranial nerves is associated with the cavernous sinus EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Facial
Abducens
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Oculomotor

Calcium dipicolinate is present in large amounts in
Spores
Flagella
Mesosomes
Ribosomes
Mitochondria

When compared to the primary mandibular first moral, the primary mandibular second molar normally exhibits a GREATER number of which of the following?
Oblique ridges
Roots
Cusps
Cervical ridges
Transverse ridges

Which of the following describes the movement of glycine molecules in an electric field at a pH of 6.06 (the isoelectric pH for glycine)? The glycine molecules will
Not move
Move to the anode
Move to the cathode
Move to both anode and cathode

Zinc is an essential component of which of the following?
Pepsin
Amaylase
Hexokinase
Adenylate cyclase
Carbonic anhydrase

Which of the following cancers typically arises in teenagers and young adults?
Wilms' tumor
Angiosarcoma
Ewing's sarcoma
Multiple myeloma
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Each of the following muscles usually appears in the floor of the posterior triangle EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Sternohyoid
Medius scalene
Splenius capitis
Levator scapulae
Anterior belly of omohyoid

In an ideal intercuspal relation, the mesiofacial cusp of the maxillary first molar opposes which morphologic entity of the mandiubular first molar?
Central fossa
Lingual groove
Distofacial groove
Mesiofacial groove

Three days ago, a patient received her third immunization with tetanus toxoid. What class of antibodies specific for tetanus toxoid would one expect to find in her serum?
Similar concentrations of IgM and IgG
High concentrations of both IgM and IgD
Low concentrations of IgM; high concentration of IgE
Low concentration of IgM; high concentration of IgG
High concentration of IgM; low concentration of IgG

Facilitated diffusion DIFFERS from active transport in that net transport by facilitated diffusion
Has a transport maximum
Uses ATP as an energy source
Requires a concentration gradient
Occurs as an endergonic (positive G) process

Mucosa of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue develops primarily from
Rathke's pouch
Tuberculum impar
Foregut endoderm
Hypobranchial eminence
Lateral lingual swellings

Each of the following statements regarding aldosterone is correct EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Is a mineralocorticoid
Increases Na uptake from the kidneys
Production is stimulated by angiotensin II
Is produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex

Interstitial pulmonary inflammation is MOST characteristic of
Viral pneumonia
Bacterial pneumonia
Lung abscess
Bronchial asthma
Bronchopneumonia

The occlusal outline of a mandibular first molar is similar to a
Circle
Square
Hexagon
Pentagon
Rhomboid

Which of the following statements is correct with respect to mastication of food?
Food is masticated primarily in a border movement
Food is masticated primarily in lateral contacting movement
An ideal occlusion is a requisite for masticatory efficiency
Proper incisor contact is a requisite for masticatory efficiency
Indigestion is generally related to inadequate mastication of food

Human papillomaviruses 16 and 18 are strongly correlated with the appearance of
Genital warts
Plantar warts
Cutaneous warts
Uterine cancer
Cervical cancer

The sensory receptors serving the stretch reflex are classified as
Nociceptors
Chemoreceptors
Proprioceptors
Exteroceptors

Which of the following muscles participates in flexion at the gleno-humeral and the humero-ulnar joints?
Deltoid
Brachialis
Biceps brachii
Triceps brachii
Coracobrachiallis

During fetal development, blood is shunted from the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch by means of the
Foramen ovale
Sinus venosus
Ductus venosus
Ductus arteriosus
Foramen secundum

Which of the following factors MOST influences the lingual concavity of the maxillary anterior teeth and groove direction of the posterior teeth?
Anterior guidance
Angle of the eminence
Curve of the occlusion
Sideshift of the mandible (Bennett movement)
Direction of movement of the rotating condyle

Rough pneumococci grown in the presence of DNA from dead smooth pneumococci develop capsules. This is an example of bacterial
Mutation
Dominance
Conjugation
Transduction
Transformation

Which of the following base pairs promotes helix stabilization in DNA but does NOT do so in RNA?
G-C
A-T
G-U
C-T
A-U

Blood from the cephalic vein drains into which of the following veins?
Basilic
Brachiocephalic
Axillary
Internal thoracic
Superior vena cava

The junction between the tooth surface and the crevicular epithelium is composed of which of the following?
Cementoid
Tight junction
Intermediate filaments
Basal lamina-like structure
Interstitial crevicular fluid

If the anticodon on transfer RNA is 5' ACG 3' then which of the following is its corresponding codon on messenger-RNA?
5' CGT 3'
5' CGU 3'
5' TGC 3'
5' UAG 3'
5' UGC 3'

On the crown of the primary maxillary first molar, the mesial surface normally
Is larger than the distal surface of the same tooth
Exhibits a concave lingual outline
Is wider occlusocervically than buccolingually
Exhibits a straight cervical line
Is wider buccolingually at the occlusal table than at the cervical third

Staphylococcus aureus MOST commonly causes
Skin infections
Septicemia
Sore throat
Chronic infections
Exogenous infections

Each of the following is characteristic of herpes zoster EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
Unilateral
Usually involves 1-3 dermatomes
Occurs repeatedly in immunocompetent patients
Only occurs in an individual having a latent VZV infection
More common in individuals who are immunocompromised

Which of the following describes the contact relationship between a maxillary central incisor and a maxillary lateral incisor?
Contact is offset to the lingual
Contact is centered incisocervically
Lingual embrassure is larger than the facial embrasure
Incisal embrassure is the largest of all the embrasures

Which of the following shows a relative INCREASE as the dental pulp ages?
Number of fibroblasts
Number of odontoblasts
Number of blood vessels
Size of the pulp chamber
Amount of fibrous connective tissue

The rapid emergence of new strains of human immunodeficiency virus is primarily the result of ------
The frequent genomic recombination between human immunodeficiency virus and other retroviruses
Frequent errors in the translation of viral proteins
The lack of immune response to the viral envelope glycoprotein
Frequent errors introduced by viral reverse transcriptase
The imprecision of protein cleavage by viral protease

Mesial and distal pulp horns are more likely to be found in which of the following teeth?
Maxillary central incisors
Mandibular central incisors
Mandibular canines
Maxillary first premolars
Mandibular first premolars

The major sensory nerve to the parietal pericardium branches from which of the following nerves?
Vagus
Muscuophrenic
Intercostal
Phrenic
Internal thoracic

Which of the following muscles is MOST concerned in quiet respiration?
Rhomboid
Diaphragm
Subclavius
Sacrospinalis
Pectoralis major

Before swallowing can be initialized, afferent information must be received

From muscle spindles, indicating the consistency of a soft bolus of food
In a lesser amount from nociceptors indicating a soft bolus of food
From mucosal mechanoreceptors, indicating the consistency of a soft bolus of food
From pharyngeal taste receptors, indicating the consistency of a soft bolus of food

When the mandible moves to the right, the mesiolingual cusp of the maxillary right first molar passes through which groove of the mandibular right first molar?
Mesiomarginal
Distofacial
Mesiofacial
Lingual
Central

The antigenic component of which of the following vaccines is a capsular antigen?
Influenza
Poliovirus
Hepatitis B
Haemophilus influenza

Coupled respiration requires each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCPETION?
ADP
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
Electron donor
Inorganic phosphate

As the severity of periodontal disease progresses, there is an increase in plasma cells that produce which of the following?
sIgA
IgD
IgE
IgG
IgM

Which of the following is a complication of cirrhosis?
Splenic atrophy
Hepatic angioma formation
Obstruction of portal circulation
Increased plasma protein formation
Decreased central venous pressure

Which of the following is produced when a mutation occurs in an enzyme controlling a signal pathway involved in cell growth processes?
Epigene
Antigene
Oncogene
Monogene
Transgene

DNA that is complementary to mRNA can be made using which of the following?
A plasmid
DNA ligase
A retrovirus
RNA polymerase
Reverse transcriptase

Which of the following groups of organs is retroperitoneal?
Pancrease, transverse colon, and descending colon
Pancrease, stomach, and ovary
Kidney, transverse colon, and ovary
Ureter, gallbladder, and transverse colon
Kidney, adrenal, and rectum

Each of the following derives from a pharyngeal pouch EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Thymus
Parathyroid
Parotid gland
Auditory tube
Palatine tonsil

SEE question 49 (Diagram involved)
Which of the following is caused by vitamin D deficiency in adults?
Rickets
Myxedema
Acromegaly
Osteomalacia
Osteitis fibrosa cystica

In unilateral balanced occlusion, contact between lower buccal cusps and upper buccal cusps, along with simultanwous contact between lower lingual cusps and upper lingual cusps, will MOST likely occur in which of the following types of mandibular movements?
Laterotrusive
Mediotrusive
Straight retrusive
Straight protrusive

The buccal mucosa typically has which of the following epithelia?
Simple columnar
Pseudostratified columnar
Non-keratinzed, stratified squamous
Parakeratinized, stratified squamous
Orthokeratinized, stratified squamous

The apex of the horizontal plane Gothic-arch tracing represents which of the following positions?
Maximum opening
Centric relation
Lateral protrusive
Rest position

Which of the following streptococcal virulence factors acts as a superantigen, mediating a variety of cytokine-induced effects that can result in life-threatening disease?
Pyrogenic exotoxin
Hyaluronidase
Streptokinase
Streptolysin O

Preganglionic parasympathitic fibers that synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion travel in which of the following nerves?
Maxillary
Lesser palatine
Lesser petrosal
Greater palatine
Greater petrosal

Initiation of calcification for the mandibular central incisor normally occurs at
3-4 months of age
1 year of age
2-3 years of age
4-5 years of age
6-7 years of age

Each of the following viruses is potentially capable of causing cell transformation EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Retrovirus
Herpesvirus
Picornavirus
Hepatitis B virus
Human papillomavirus

Of the primary maxillary teeth, the cervical ridge would stand out MOST prominently as a distinct entity on which surface of which molar?
First Distofacial
First Mesiofacial
Second Distofacial
Second Mesiolingual
Second Distolingual

IL-1 is primarily produced by which of the following?
Neutrophils
Macrophages
Plasma cells
T-helper cells
T-suppressor cells

During endodontic therapy, one will usually find two pulp canals in which of the following?
Mandibular canine
Distofacial root of a maxillary molar
Distal root of a mandibular first molar
Mesial root of a mandibular first molar
Lingual root of a maxillary first molar

Which of the following statements BEST applies to saliva?
Phosphate is the main pH buffer
Supplies sialate for additional mucins
Main source of enzymes for protein digestion
Supplies calcium and phosphate for remineralization
Undersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite at neutral pH

Smooth muscle contains each of the following muscle proteins EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Actin
Myosin
Troponin
Tropomyosin

Cell bodies of neurons mediating proprioception from the periodontal lifament of the maxillary first molar lie in the
Semilunar ganglion
Motor nucleus of V
Spinal nucleus of V
Chief sensory nucleus of V
Mesencephalic nucleus of V

Which of the following can be used to distinguish the palatine tonsil from the pharyngeal tonsil on the histologic level?
General shape of the tonsil
Number of lymphatic nodules
Type of epithelium associated with it
Type of lymphocytes present
Presence or absence of Hassall's corpuscles
The movement in the upper compartment of the temporomandibular joint is rotation and translation.

The movement in the lower compartment is translation.

Both statements are TRUE
Both statements are FALSE
The first statement is TRUE, and the second is FALSE
The first statement is FALSE, and the second is TRUE

As blood flows through the periodontal membrane, tremendous pressures occur in response to forceful occlusion. Blood flow is temporarily reduced, but platelets do not aggregate because of the presence of
Ca
ADP
Thrombin
Thromboxane A2
Prostacyclin (PgI2)

Which of the following parts of the hypophysis is the site of oxytocin release?
Pars nervosa
Infundibulum
Pars distalis
Pars tuberalis
Pars intermedia

The non-working condyle performs which of the following movements?
Straight forward
Forward and downward
Downward, forward, and lateral
Downward, backward, and medial
Downward, forward, and medial

Which of the following substances is the predominant source of ATP at MODERATE levels (for greater than 60 minutes) of activity?
Amino acids
Fatty acids
Carbohydrates
Proteins

Which of the following premotes the release of bile from the gallbladder?
Gasrin
Secretin
Galla
Bombesin
Cholecystokinin

Which of the following teeth represents the one MOST likely to present with three roots?
Mandibular central incisor
Mandibular second premolar
Mandibular canine
Maxillary first premolar
Maxillary second premolar

Which of the following chemical agents is approved as an immersion sterilant?
Iodophors
Ethyl alcohol
Glutaraldehydes
Synthetic phenolics
Sodium hypochlorite

Granulation tissue is comprised of each of the following components EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Fibroblasts
Plasma cells
Capillary buds
Endothelial cells
Newly formed collagen

Following eruption and initial occlusal contact in the oral cavity, a tooth will continue to erupt in order to compensate for occlusal wear. In response to this continuous eruption, which of the following is deposited at the apex of the root?
Primary dentin
Secondary dentin
Reparative dentin
Cellular cementum
Acellular cementum

Which of the following would produce the greatest DECREASE in resistance in a single artery 2 mm long and with a radius of 1.2 mm?
A halving in length
A doubling in length
An increase in radius by a factor of 2
A decrease in blood viscosity by a factor of 2

Which of the following BEST describes a centric holding cusp of a mandibular left second molar?
It is the distofacial cusp and occludes in the embrassure between maxillary first and second molars
It is the distofacial cusp and occludes in the central fossa of a maxillary second molar
It is the distolingual cusp and occludes in the embrassure between maxillary first and second molars
It is the distolingual cusp and occludes in the central fossa of a maxillary second molar

Oral streptococci are usually
Gamma-hemolytic
Alpha-hemolytic
Beta-hemolytic
Non-hemolytic

The cell membrane is LEAST permeable to which of the following substances?
O2
CO2
H2O
Sodium
Ethanol

Which of the following types of dentin is the MOST highly mineralized?
Carious
Predentin
Intertubular
Interglobular
Intra(peri)tubular

Each of the following can be found in the dental pulp EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Nerve tissue
Blood vessels
Cementoblasts
Lymph vessels

According to the Spaulding Classification System for contaminated items and srufaces, semi-critical items should be reprocessed by
Exposure to ethylene oxide
A spray-wipe-spray technique
Immersion in a tuberculocidal disinfectant
Washing with a chlorhexidine fluconate disinfectant
Heat stabilization if the material is heat stable

In the contractile cycle, the dissociation of the actomyosin complex results MOST immediately from
ATP hydrolysis
Release of ATP hydrolysis products
ATP replacing ADP on the myosin heads
Tilting of the myosin heads (crossbridges)

Which of the following represents the consequence of the fact that DNA strans are complementary?
Hairpin loop structures can be generated
They will always have identical sequences
Separated strands are able to reassociate
They cannot get back together once separated

Which of the following predominates in steroid producing cells?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Phagosomes
Nucleolus

The spacing between anterior teeth in the primary dentition is MOST frequently caused by
Thumb-sucking
Tongue thrusting
Transseptal gingival fibers
The growth of the dental arches
The pressure form succedaeous teeth

Each of the following types of cells is phagocytic EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Monocyte
Histiocyte
Neutrophil
Macrophage
Lymphocyte

Which of the following is MOST likely to promote depolymerization of extracellular matrix?
Corisone
Collagenase
Chymotrypsin
Hyaluronidase


 

lillieflower

D1 cruisin'
10+ Year Member
May 7, 2007
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arizona
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  1. Dental Student
In the contractile cycle, the dissociation of the actomyosin complex results MOST immediately from
ATP hydrolysis
Release of ATP hydrolysis products
ATP replacing ADP on the myosin heads
Tilting of the myosin heads (crossbridges)


The spacing between anterior teeth in the primary dentition is MOST frequently caused by
Thumb-sucking

Tongue thrusting
Transseptal gingival fibers
The growth of the dental arches
The pressure form succedaeous teeth
 
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