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can somebody help me with these questions

Discussion in 'Step I' started by snigdha007, Aug 12, 2006.

  1. snigdha007

    snigdha007 Junior Member
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    1.most hyperosmotic portion of kidney?
    a.ascending loop of henle
    b.inner medulla
    c.collecting duct
    2.which is least likely to infect a burn lesion?
    a.clostridium.tetani
    b.s.aureus
    c.m.ulceratum
    d.p.aeruginosa
    3.which cell type in newly forming bone is the most mitotic?
    a.osteogenic progenitor cells
    b.osteoblast precursor
    4.how does pancreatic lipase get activated?
    5.section below T4 of spinal cord,and they come into the office for a 2 hr appointment .what do you worry about?
    a.bowel emptying
    b.high bp
    c.temperature regulation
    6.what happens to cause troponin elevation in blood?
    7.in a highly acidic environment the GC conent of DNA is?
    a.highest
    b.intermediate
    c.low
    8.if the bile duct is plugged it will cause defeciency of what vitamins?
    a.ADE
    bKDE
    c.KAB
    9.in which of the following is the adventitia of arterioles consist predominantly of lymphoid tissue?
    a.lymphnode
    b.spleen
    c.thymus
    d.appendix
    10.which of the following is located out of the lobular area of liver?
    a.bile ductules
    b.hepatic artery
    c.portal vein
    d.central vein
    11.EQ [CO2/O2]of a patient is 0.7.this means what is the predominant source of energy?
    a.fat
    b.carbs
    c.protein
    please respond to these questions
    thanks in advance
    bye
    snigdha
     
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  3. tupac_don

    tupac_don Senior Member
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    1. b
    2. a
    8. b
    11.c
    10. d not sure
     
  4. pratik7

    pratik7 Senior Member
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    i appreciate you reminding me of how little i remember from first year :thumbdown:

    I agree with the previous posters response. However, i think the collecting duct can be more osmotic depending on ADH levels..but im not sure.
    4. I think pancreatic lipase is secreted in active form. However, it needs bile salts in order to digest lipids
    8. ADK cause they are fat soluble
    9. maybe spleen
     
  5. rice_boy

    rice_boy Member
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    Q5: B. (Autonomic dysreflexia - ie. v.high BP)

    Q8: B (but A is right too, no? Fat soluble vit.-ADEK)
     
  6. joe6102

    joe6102 by the power of grayskull
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    Why the answer 2. a? Because of probable vaccination?
     
  7. tupac_don

    tupac_don Senior Member
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    Just thought of it A is the right answer, bacteria in the gut make K, so ADE is the correct answer.
     
  8. tupac_don

    tupac_don Senior Member
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    No, although that could also be another reason, but I thought more, b/c the other pathogens infect burn lesions, and I never heard of C. Tetani infecting burn lesions. While the other pathogens, particularly Pseudomonas, and even staph are quite common.
     
  9. abhishek sareen

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    1b.inner medulla


    3. b.osteoblast precursor

    5.a.bowel emptying


    7.c.low
    8b KDE


    11.c.protein
     
  10. joe6102

    joe6102 by the power of grayskull
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    I know s. aureus and p. aruginosa infect burn lesions, but when the question has an organism in it that no one has heard of (m. ulceratum), I'd pick that one over clostridium tetani, which is abundant and known to infect wounds.
     
  11. Idiopathic

    Idiopathic Newly Minted
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    guys we make vitamin D in the body. all fat solube vitamins need bile for absorption, so the answer is KAB. (q no 8)

    troponin is a cardiac enzyme specific to cell death. it is elevated ~24 hours post-MI and in renal failure (q no 6)
     
  12. PsychoDan

    PsychoDan Junior Member
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    hmm, Vit K comes from sun, too, right?
     
  13. Idiopathic

    Idiopathic Newly Minted
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    I hope you are joking.
     
  14. PsychoDan

    PsychoDan Junior Member
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    Well, not completely idiotic. Vit. D does come from sun exposure, not K, at least from a quick Google search.
     
  15. Idiopathic

    Idiopathic Newly Minted
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    It isnt idiotic to get things mixed up, but with the amount of minutia and 'FA errors' regarding arcane information that is discussed on this board, it would do people well to make sure and remember the basics. You are much more likely to have three questions dealing with vitamin D in some way on the test...its wise to know about things like that. Some points off the top:

    1) Fat soluble vitamins all need proper biliary flow to be absorbed and need a functioning gut. Liver dx, gall bladder malfunction, gut malfunction all contribute to malabsorption of fat soluble vitamins...steatorrhea is a dead giveaway of a malabsorptive state.

    2) ADEK are all FS vitamins, but D is made in the skin, and activated first in the liver and then in the kidney by hydroxylases. Renal failure is an important cause of D deficiency and pages are devoted to this in CRF texts.

    3) Sarcoidosis causes increased vitamin D synthesis and increased blood Ca++ levels due to increased macrophage activation and subsequently increased hydroxylation of vitamin D to active vitamin D (they carry the 1-a-hydroxylase enzyme too)

    4) Vitamin K is synthesized by gut bacteria and doesnt need to be ingested but needs bile to be absorbed properly. We also take in Vitamin D as supplements but it too needs bile flow to be absorbed. Its obviously possiblle that in the scenario described in the question someone will be deficient in all 4 FS vitamins, but much less so in D.

    Just some discussion points. This stuff was pretty HY on my boards,I got maybe 5 questions dealing with vitamin synthesis/absorption/MOA
     
  16. PsychoDan

    PsychoDan Junior Member
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    Nice summary. I hadn't known about the sarcoidosis correlation. Those are all points that Goljan stresses as important as well, so it seems well worth it to understand all those points.
     
  17. Idiopathic

    Idiopathic Newly Minted
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    A cynic might say thats where I learned them ;)
     

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