# Exam Krackers Audio Osmosis Track List with Errata

This forum made possible through the generous support of SDN members, donors, and sponsors. Thank you.

#### Don Draper

##### Full Member
10+ Year Member
Found this online, thought it would be useful for some of you. Reformatted it a bit. Hope this helps.

-Don
__________________________________________________________
MCAT Audio Osmosis

Track List with Errata
CD 1
Category 1: Intro
01-Intro
02-How to
03-Other
04-The MCAT
Category 2: Physics
05- Five Step System
06- Vectors and Scalars
07- Component Vectors, Trigonometry, & Triangles
08- Translational Motion Conceptually
09- Translational Motion Application
10- Vertical Projectile Motion
11- Distance Traveled
12- Translational Motion Formulas
13- Example in Projectile Motion
14- Air Resistance
15- Mass & Weight
16- Rotational Inertia
17- Summary of Mass & Weight
18- Center of Mass
19- The Four Forces of Nature
20- Types of Contact Forces
21- Newton's Laws of Motion
22- Newton's First Law
23- Newton's Second Law
24- Newton's Third Law
25- Explanation of Horse & Cart
26- Newton's Law of Gravity
27- Why Objects Appear to Float in Orbit
28- Centripetal Acceleration
30- Centripetal Force
31- Inclined Planes
32- Friction
33- Static & Kinetic Friction
34- Formulas for Friction
35- When Does Friction Oppose Motion
36- Tension
37- Hooke's Law

CD 2
CONTINUED:

Disc 2-01- Equilibrium
Disc 2-02- Equilibrium Example
Disc 2-03- Non-Equilibrium
Disc 2-04- Non-Equilibrium Example
Disc 2-05- Torque
Disc 2-06- Example of Torque
Disc 2-07- Energy
Disc 2-08- Types of Energy
Disc 2-09- Gravitational Potential Energy
Disc 2-10- Elastic Potential Energy
Disc 2-11- Systems
Disc 2-12- The First Law of Thermodynamics
Disc 2-13- Work vs. Heat
Disc 2-14- Work
Disc 2-15- Another Formula for Work
Disc 2-16- Conservative Forces
Disc 2-17- Work & Conservative Forces
Disc 2-18- Friction & Work
Disc 2-19- Power
Disc 2-20- Momentum vs. Inertia
Disc 2-21- Momentum Defined
Disc 2-22- Elastic vs. Inelastic Collisions
Disc 2-23- Collision Example
Disc 2-24- Solving Collision Problems
Disc 2-25- Reverse Collisions
Disc 2-26- Impulse
Disc 2-27- The Reason for Machines
Disc 2-28- How Machines Work
Disc 2-29- Ramps
Disc 2-30- Levers
Disc 2-31- Pulleys
Disc 2-32- HalfLife
Disc 2-33- Alpha Particles
Disc 2-34- Beta Decay
Disc 2-35- Positron Emission
Disc 2-36- Electron Capture
Disc 2-37- Gamma Rays & Annihilation
Disc 2-38- EMC2
Disc 2-39- Fission & Fusion

CD 3
CONTINUED:
Disc 3-01- The Nature of Fluids
Disc 3-02- Intensive & Extensive Properties
Disc 3-03- Density & Specific Gravity
Disc 3-04- The Concept of Pressure
Disc 3-05- Units of Pressure
Disc 3-06- Fluids at Rest
Disc 3-07- Gauge Pressure
Disc 3-08- Pascal's Principle
Disc 3-09- A Hydraulic Lift
Disc 3-10- Archimedes Principle

Disc 3-11- The Buoyant Force
Disc 3-12- Fluids in Motion
Disc 3-13- Ideal Fluids
Disc 3-14- The Continuity Equation
Disc 3-15- Bernoulli's Equation
Disc 3-16- Non-Ideal Fluids
Disc 3-17- Surface Tension

CD #3 Track 17: The terms 'cohesive' and 'adhesive' are reversed when Jordan says:

"The cohesive forces of water to glass are greater than the adhesive forces of water to water. The
cohesive forces can cause a water column to climb the glass of a thin test tube. This is called
capillary action. If the adhesive forces are stronger than the cohesive forces, like mercury in a
glass test tube, the miniscus is convexed and will be pulled downward in a thin test tube."

He should have said:

"The adhesive forces of water to glass are greater than the cohesive forces of water to water. The
adhesive forces can cause a water column to climb the glass of a thin test tube. This is called
capillary action. If the cohesive forces are stronger than the adhesive forces, like mercury in a
glass test tube, the miniscus is convexed and will be pulled downward in a thin test tube."

All other references to cohesive and adhesive are correct.

Cohesive forces are the forces between molecules within the fluid, such as water-to-water forces.
Adhesive forces are the forces between the molecules of the fluid and the container, such as
water-to-glass.

Disc 3-18- Stress & Strain

Disc 3-19- Modulus of Elasticity
Disc 3-20- Thermal Expansion
Disc 3-21- Wave Characteristics
Disc 3-22- Velocity of a Wave
Disc 3-23- Surface Waves
Disc 3-24- Intensity
Disc 3-25- Wave Phase
Disc 3-26- Beat Frequency
Disc 3-27- Standing Wave
Disc 3-28- Simple Harmonic Motion

CD 4
Physics Lecture 7: Electricity and Magnetism
Track 1: Electric Charge
Track 2: Electrostatic Force
Track 3: Derivations from Newtonâs and Coulombâs Law
Track 4: Fields and Lines of Force
CD #4 Track 2: Coulomb's law constant is 8.9x10 to the positive 9 not negative 9.

Track 5: An Electric Dipole
Track 6: Resistivity
Track 7: Movement of Charge
Track 8: Circuits
Track 9: Capacitors
Track 10: Energy of a Capacitor
Track 11: Circuit Elements

Track 12: Solving Circuits

Track 13: Power
Track 14: AC Current
Track 15: Magnetism

Physics Lecture 8: Light and Optics

Track 16: Electromagnetic Waves
Track 17: Light
Track 18: Geometric Optics

CD #4 Track 18: When discussing the critical angle Jordan says "If the light is

moving from a lower index of refraction to a higher index of refraction..."
Total internal reflection occurs when light tries to move from a medium with a HIGH index of refraction to a medium with a LOW index of refraction and the angle of incidence is so great that all the light is reflected back into the high indexed medium.
In the same discussion, Jon says "The larger index of refraction must be on the top of the ratio." when solving for the critical angle with Snell's law. The opposite is true. The larger index of refraction must be on the bottom of the ratio, so that the ratio is a fraction less than one.

Track 19: Chromatic Dispersion Track 20: Diffraction
Track 21: Images
Track 22: Types of Lenses and Mirrors
Track 24: Focal Points
Track 25: Power
Track 26: Ray Diagrams
Track 27: Magnification
Track 28: The Thin Lens Equation
Track 29: A System for Optics
Track 30: Double Lens Systems

CD 5
Verbal Reasoning
Track 1: Why Verbal Reasoning is on the MCAT
Track 2: What Kind Improvement Can I Expect
Track 3: The Structure of the Verbal Reasoning Section
Track 4: Verbal Strategy Part 1: Energy
Track 5: Verbal Strategy Part 2: Focus
Track 6: Verbal Strategy Part 3: Confidence
Track 7: Verbal Strategy Part 4: Timing
CD #5 Track #7: Stand alone timers are no longer allowed on the MCAT. You are
limited to a watch.
Track 8: Verbal Tactics Part 1: The Five Second Break
Track 9: Verbal Tactics Part 2: Read Every Word
Track 10: Verbal Tactics Part 3: The Main Idea
Track 11: Verbal Tactics Part 4: The Four Tools to Find the Answer

Track 12: Tool 1: Going Back to the Passage
Track 13: Tool 2: The Main Idea
Track 14: Tools 3 & 4: The Question Stems and Answer Choices

Chemistry Lecture 1: Atoms, Molecules, and Quantum Mechanics

Track 15: Atomic Structure
Track 16: Elements and Isotopes
Track 17: Avogadroâs Number and the AMU
Track 18: The Periodic Table
Track 19: The Periodic Trends
Track 20: Ionization Energy
Track 21: Electronegativity and Electron Affinity
Track 22: Bonds
Track 23: Empirical and Molecular Formulas
Track 24: Reactions
Track 25: The Structure of Solids
Track 26: Quantum Mechanics
Track 27: Quantum Numbers
Track 28: The First Quantum Number
Track 29: The Second Quantum Number
Track 30: The Third Quantum Number
Track 31: The Fourth Quantum Number
Track 32: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Track 33: The Aufbau principle
Track 34: Degenerate Orbitals
Track 35: Hundâs Rule
Track 36: Planckâs Quantum Theory
Track 37: The Photoelectric Effect
Track 38: Electron Configurations

Chemistry Lecture 2: Gases, Kinetics, and Chemical Equilibrium

Track 39: Ideal Gas and Kinetic Molecular Theory
Track 40: No Volume
Track 41: No Attractive Forces
Track 42: Elastic Collisions
Track 43: Temperature and Kinetic Energy
Track 44: The Ideal Gas Law
Track 45: Standard Molecular Volume
Track 46: Daltonâs Law
Track 47: Temperature and Molecular Kinetic Energy
Track 48: Effusion and Diffusion
Track 49: Real Gas Behavior
Track 50: Reaction Kinetics
Track 51: The Collision Model

CD 6
Chemistry Lecture 2 continued
Track 1: The Arrhenius Equation
Track 2: The Rate Law

Track 3: Exponents in the Rate Law

Track 4: Catalysts
Track 5: Chemical Equilibrium

CD #6 Track 5: Jon says "The equilibrium expression changes with temperature,

but is not affected by a catalyst or by concentrations." He should have said "The
equilibrium CONSTANT changes with temperature, but the EQUILIBRIUM
EXPRESSION does not. Neither the equilibrium expression nor the equilibrium
constant is affected by a catalyst or by concentrations. "

Track 6: LeChatelierâs Principle

Track 7: The Reaction Quotient
Chemistry Lecture 3: Thermodynamics
Track 8: What is Thermodynamics
Track 9: Isolated Systems
Track 10: Closed Systems
Track 11: Open Systems
Track 12: The First Law of Thermodynamics
Track 13: Conduction
Track 14: Convection

CD #6 track #15: Jordan says that the net heat transfer rate is proportional to...

...the temperature difference between the body and the environment raised to the fourth power. net heat transfer = sigma*epsilon*A*(T^4 - Te^4).
The net heat transfer is actually proportional to T^4 - Te^4) NOT (T-Te)^4
At low temperture differences, Newton's law of cooling says that the rate of cooling of a body is approximately proportional to the temperature difference
between the body and the environment.
Track 16: Work
Track 17: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Track 18: State Functions
Track 19: Internal Energy
Track 20: Temperature
Track 21: The Third Law of Thermodynamics
Track 22: Enthalpy
Track 23: Standard State and Heat of Formation
Track 24: Heat of Reaction
Track 25: Endothermicity and Exothermicity
Track 26: Energy Diagrams
Track 27: Entropy
Track 28: Equations for Entropy
Track 29: Gibbs Energy
Track 30: Gibbs Energy Formula

Chemistry Lecture 4: Solutions

Track 31: What is a Solution
Track 32: Types of Solutions
Track 33: Colloids
Track 34: Solvation Track 35: Ions
Track 36: Units of Concentration
Track 37: Solution Formation
Track 38: Vapor Pressure
Track 39: Raoultâs Law
Track 40: Deviations to Raoultâs Law
Track 41: Solubility
Track 42: The Solubility Product
Track 43: Spectator Ions and the Common Ion Effect
Track 44: Solubilities
Track 45: Solubility Factors

Chemistry Lecture 5: Heat Capacity, Phase Change, and Colligative Properties

Track 46: Phases
Track 47: Heat Capacity
Track 48: Specific Heat
Track 49: Calorimeter

CD 7
Chemistry Lecture 5 continued
Track 1: Heat Curves
Track 2: Thermodynamics of Phase Change
CD #7 Track 2: While discussing melting Jon says "It is interesting to relate
thermodynamics to the heat curve... ...But the enthalpy change is NEGATIVE"
Jon should have said "It is interesting to relate thermodynamics to the heat
curve... ...But the enthalpy change is POSITIVE" Both enthalpy change and
entropy change are positive during melting. Everything else in the track still
applies. If both entropy and enthalpy change are positive, delta G depends upon
temperature.

Track 3: Phase Diagrams

Track 4: Colligative Properties
Track 5: Boiling Point Elevation
Track 6: Freezing Point Depression
Track 7: Osmotic Pressure

Chemistry Lecture 6: Acids and Bases

Track 8: Definitions
CD #7 Track #8: Jordan says "Lewis acids: donate; bases: accept." This is
backwards. Lewis acids accept a pair of electrons and Lewis bases donate a pair
of electrons.

Track 9: The Hydronium Ion

Track 10: Acid Strength and pH

CD #7 track #10: Jordan says that the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 3.6x10^-4 is 4.5. It is 3.5.
Track 11: The Log Function
CD #7 Track #11: Jordan says "The log of A times B equals the log A times the log of B." He should say "The log of A times B equals the log of A plus the log of B."
Track 12: Acid and Base Reactions
Track 13: Structural Characteristics of an Acid
Track 14: Acid/Base Equilibrium
Track 15: The Acid Dissociation Constant
Track 16: The pH of a Strong Acid
Track 17: The pH of a Weak Acid
Track 18: Titrations
Track 19: Buffered Solutions
Track 20: The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
Track 21: Indicators
Track 22: Titrations of Polyprotic Acids

Chemistry Lecture 7: Electrochemistry

Track 23: Electrochemistry Track 24: Oxidation States Track 25: Redox Reactions Track 26: Redox Titrations
CD #7 Track 26: Jon says "..the arteriole red blood cells contain fewer chloride
ions than venous red blood cells."
If Jon had been thinking correctly he would have said "..the arteriole red blood
cells contain MORE chloride ions than venous red blood cells."

Track 27: Half Reaction Potentials
Track 28: The Galvanic Cell
Track 29: An Example of a Galvanic Cell
Track 30: Gibbs Free Energy and EMF

CD #7 Track 30: Jordan says "If delta G zero is positive, K is greater than one. If delta G zero is negative, then K is less than one." This is backwards. A positive delta G zero indicates a K less than one, and a negative delta G zero indicates a K greater than one.

Track 31: The Nernst Equation Track 32: A Concentration Cell Track 33: Electrolytic Cells

CD 8
Biology Lecture 1: Molecular Biology
Track 1: Water

Track 2: Lipids

Track 3: Proteins
Track 4: Primary and Secondary Structure
Track 5: Tertiary Structure
Track 6: Quaternary Structure
Track 7: Carbohydrates
Track 8: Nucleic Acids
Track 9: Minerals
Track 10: Enzymes
Track 11: Enzyme Inhibition
Track 12: Glycolysis and Fermentation
Track 13: Aerobic Respiration
Track 14: The Electron Transport Chain

Biology Lecture 2: Genes

Track 15: The Gene
Track 16: The Structure of DNA
Track 17: Replication
Track 18: RNA
Track 19: Transcription
Track 20: Post-Transcriptional Processing
Track 21: DNA Technology
Track 22: The Universal Genetic Code
Track 23: Translation

CD #8 Track 23: Jon says "...dragging the second tRNA to the P site, adn

exposing the P site for yet another tRNA."
Jon should say: "...dragging the second tRNA to the P site, and exposing the A
site for yet another tRNA."

DNA and RNA are read 5 to 3. Anticodons are an exception and they are read 3-

5. This track says that the anticodon is read 5 to 3. This is incorrect. This
knowledge is very unlikely to be tested by the MCAT.

Track 24: Mutations

Track 25: Chromosomes
Track 26: The Cell Life Cycle
Track 27: Mitosis
Track 28: Meiosis

Biology Lecture 3: Microbiology

Track 29: Microbiology
Track 30: Viruses
Track 31: The Viral Life Cycle
Track 32: Types of Viruses
Track 33: The Structure of Bacteria
Track 34: The Phospholipid Bilayer
Track 35: Membrane Transport
Track 36: Bacterial Envelope
Track 37: Bacterial Movement

CD 9
Biology Lecture 3 continued
Track 1: Genetic Recombination and Reproduction in Bacteria
Track 2: Endospores
Track 3: Sources for Energy, Carbon, and Electrons Track 4: Fungi
Track 5: Yeast

Biology Lecture 4: The Eukaryotic Cell; The Nervous System

Track 6: The Nucleus
Track 7: Endocytosis
Track 8: Two Sides to Every Cell
Track 9: The Rough ER
Track 10: The Golgi
Track 11: Lysosomes
Track 12: Peroxisomes
Track 13: The Smooth ER
Track 14: The Cytoskeleton
Track 15: Flagella and Cilia
Track 16: Mitochondria
Track 17: The Glycocalyx
Track 18: Cellular Junctions and the Matrix
Track 19: Multicellular Organization
Track 20: Intercellular Communication
Track 21: Physiology of the Nervous System
Track 22: The Action Potential
Track 23: The Synapse
Track 24: Neuroglia
Track 25: The Structure of the Nervous System
Track 26: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Track 27: The Brain
Track 28: Sensory Receptors

Biology Lecture 5: The Endocrine System

Track 29: Exocrine vs. Endocrine
Track 30: Classes of Hormones
Track 31: How Peptides Function
Track 32: The Second Messenger System
Track 33: How Steroids Function
Track 34: How Tyrosine Derivatives Function
Track 35: Negative Feedback
Track 36: The Hypothalamus
Track 37: The Anterior Pituitary
Track 38: The Posterior Pituitary
Track 39: The Thyroid
Track 40: The Parathyroid
Track 41: The Pancreas
Track 42: Glucagon
Track 43: Insulin
Track 45: Aldosterone

Track 46: Cortisol

Track 48: Male Reproductive Hormones
Track 49: Female Reproduction
Track 50: Embryology

CD #9,Track 50: They say that the oocyte undergoes meiosis 1 and 2 after

penetration by the sperm.
This is incorrect for humans. The correct process is as follows:
Oogenesis begins in the ovaries of the fetus. All the eggs of the female are
arrested as primary oocytes at birth... ...Shortly before the primary oocyte is
released from the follicle during ovulation, the nucleus divides by meiosis to
become the secondary oocyte... ...The entry of the sperm causes the cortical
reaction, which prevents other sperms from fertilizing the same egg. Now the
oocyte goes through the second meiotic division releasing a second polar body.
Fertilization occurs when the nuclei of the egg and sperm fuse to form the
zygote.

CD 10
Biology Lecture 6: The Digestive System; The Excretory System
Track 1: Digestion Track 2: Anatomy of the Digestive System
Track 3: The Mouth and the Esophagus
Track 4: The Stomach
Track 5: Small Intestines
Track 6: The Pancreas
Track 7: The Large Intestines
Track 8: Absorption

CD #10 Track 8: The track incorrectly reads: "nutrients are absorbed into the

enterocytes of the small intestines mainly in the DUODENUM"
Jon should have said
nutrients are absorbed into the enterocytes of the small intestines mainly in the
JENUNUM and ILEUM whereas digestion is performed mainly in the
DUODENUM.

Track 9: Absorptive Fate of Carbohydrates

Track 10: Absorptive Fate of Proteins
Track 11: Absorptive Fate of Fats
Track 12: The Liver
Track 13: Function and Anatomy of the Kidney
Track 14: The Renal Corpuscle
Track 15: The Proximal Tubule
Track 16: The Loop of Henle
Track 17: The Distal Tubule
Track 18: The Collecting Duct
Track 19: The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

Biology Lecture 7: The Cardiovascular System; The Respiratory System
Track 20: Cardiovascular Anatomy
Track 21: The Action Potential in the Heart
Track 22: Breathing
Track 23: Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Track 24: Gas Exchange
Track 25: Oxygen Dissociation Curves
Track 26: The Chloride Shift
Track 27: The Lymphatic System
Track 28: The Blood
Track 29: Blood Cells
Track 30: Innate Immunity
Track 31: Humoral Immunity
Track 32: Effect of Antibodies
Track 33: Cell Mediated Immunity
Track 34: Blood Types

Biology Lecture 8: Muscle and Bone
Track 35: Types of Muscle
Track 36: Skeletal Muscle
Track 37: The Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Track 38: Mechanism of Skeletal Muscle Contraction
Track 39: Motor Units
Track 40: Skeletal Muscle Cell Types
Track 41: Cardiac Muscle
Track 42: Bone
Track 43: Compact Bone
Track 44: Cartilage and Joints

CD 11
Biology Lecture 9: Populations
Track 1: Mendel
Track 2: Mendel&#946;s Second Law
Track 3: Other Methods of Expression
Track 4: Ramifications of Being Diploid
Track 5: Evolution Track 6: What is a Species?
Track 7: Reproductive Strategies
Track 8: Convergent and Divergent Evolution
Track 9: The Hardy Weinberg Principle
Track 10: The Origin of the Universe

Organic Chemistry Lecture 1: Molecular Structure
Track 11: Molecular Structure
Track 12: Lewis Dot Structures
Track 13: Structural Formulas
Track 14: The Important Functional Groups
Track 15: Other Functional Groups
Track 16: Nomenclature
Track 17: Bonding

Track 18: Hybridization
Track 19: Shapes and Bond Angles
Track 20: Delocalized Electrons
Track 21: Rules for Drawing Resonance Structures
Track 22: Dipole Moment
Track 23: Intermolecular Bonding
Track 24: Conformational Isomers
Track 25: Structural Isomers
Track 26: Chirality
Track 27: Absolute Configuration
Track 28: Relative configuration
Track 29: Observed Rotation
Track 30: Enantiomers
Track 31: Diastereomers

Organic Chemistry Lecture 2: Hydrocarbons, Alcohols, and Substitutions
Track 32: Alkanes
Track 33: Physical Properties of Alkanes
Track 34: Cycloalkanes
Track 35: Combustion
Track 36: Halogenation of Alkanes
Track 37: Alkenes
Track 38: Synthesis of Alkenes

CD 12
Organic Chemistry Lecture 2 continued
Track 1: Catalytic Hydrogenation
Track 2: Oxidation of Alkenes

CD #12 Track 3: Jordan says "isn't there a way to add the halogen to the MOST
substituted carbon?" and Jon says, "with peroxides... HYDROGEN adds the
most substituted carbon"...

Jordan should say "Halogen to the LEAST sustituted carbon".
Track 4: Hydration of an Alkene
Track 5: Oxymercuration
Track 6: Hydroboration

CD #12 track #6: Hydroboration.
Jordan says, "Now is there a way to hydrate an ALCOHOL with anti-markovnikov
Jordan should have said
Now is there a way to hydrate an ALKENE with anti-markovnikov addition.
Track 7: Halogenation of an Alkene
Track 8: Benzene
Track 9: Electron Donating and Withdrawing Properties
Track 10: SN1 Reactions
Track 11: SN2 Reactions
Track 12: Nucleophilicity
Track 13: SN1 vs. SN2
Track 14: Alcohols
Track 15: Alcohols as Acids Track 16: Alcohol Synthesis
Track 17: Reactions with Alcohols
Track 18: Ehters
Track 19: Order of Acidity

Organic Chemistry Lecture 3: Carbonyls and Amines
Track 20: The Carbonyl
Track 21: Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
Track 22: Chemical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
Track 23: Aldehydes and Ketones with Alcohols
Track 24: Aldol Condensation
Track 25: conjugation
Track 26: Carboxylic Acids
Track 27: Chemistry of Carboxylic Acids
Track 28: Reactions of Carboxylic Acid and Derivatives
Track 29: Amines
Track 30: Reactions with Amines
Track 31: Nitriles

Organic Chemistry Lecture 4: Biochemistry and Lab Techniques
Track 32: Fatty Acids
Track 33: Amino Acids
Track 34: The Isoelectric Point and Electrophoresis
Track 35: Carbohydrates
Track 36: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Track 37: Peak Position in NMR
Track 38: Spin-Spin Splitting
Track 39: Integral and Digital Traces
Track 40: An Example of NMR
Track 41: NMR Summary
Track 42: IR Spectroscopy
Track 43: Chromatography
Track 44: Distillation
Track 45: Crystallization
Track 46: Extraction

1 user
thanks it did help, not sure why nobody said anything!!

Thanks!

thanks dick

Members don't see this ad :)
Just spotted another one.

In CD 12, Track 13: SN1 vs. SN2, Jordan says, "Polar solvents increase the rate of SN1 by stabilizing the carbocation, but inhibit SN2 by stabilizing the nucleophile."

He should have said "PROTIC, or POLAR PROTIC solvents increase the rate...."

Both SN1 and SN2 reactions are favoured by polar solvents, it is the protic nature that favours one over the other.

-DDW

.

Last edited:
Track 10: The Origin of the Universe- This is the last track for biology lecture.

I heard another error in this track. It's not a huge error, but it's an error nonetheless. I am paraphasing what one of them said, The universe is 12-15 billion years old....mentions the formation of hydrogen and elements after that.... then the solar system arose 10 billion years ago, and the earth is 4 and a half billion years old.

The earth and solar system arose around the same time. So the solar system is also 4 and a half billion years old ( give or take a few million years )
That's not what the bible says...

.

Last edited:
1 user
I won't even bother :b
haha... sorry. I debated removing it, but Satan convinced me not to.