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Mar 28, 2010
Hey all! So I'm preparing for my embryo exam and found some old questions with no answers! Anyone interested/knowledgeable please help!

After compaction, the innermost cells of the morula are unable to give rise to which of the following cell types?
a. Epiblast
b. Primitive endoderm
c. Inner cell mass
d. Hypoblast
e. Trophectoderm

What are the key differences between human ES cells and human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells?
a. ES cells are less pluripotent than iPS cells.
b. ES cells are derived from embryos and iPS cells are derived from adult tissues.
c. ES cells can become all cell types within the body, whereas iPS cells can only contribute to the liver, the intestine and the skin.
d. ES cells are derived from the blastocyst stage embryo and iPS cells are derived from the post-implantation stage embryo.
e. Tissues derived from ES cells are immune-protected and can be used for all patients, whereas iPS cells are patient-specific.

Which functional interaction is NOT true?
a. Sox9 controls the expression of most genes expressed by chondrocytes.
b. ATF4 function is regulated by the Rsk2 kinase.
c. Twist is a regulator of Runx2 function.
d. PTHrP is a regulator of OPG activity.
e. OPG is an inhibitor of RANKL binding to its receptor.

Cutting the axons of nerve cells during development will cause them to undergo apoptotic death because:
a. this deprives them of support provided by retrogradely transported survival factors.
b. there is excessive leakage of axoplasm and loss of mitochondria.
c. they can no longer signal to their targets, causing an excess build up of intracellular sodium.
d. this diminishes the surface area with which they can take up oxygen and nutrients.
e. this triggers an inflammatory response that results in activation of phagocytosis.


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Time for you to head to the library for some help with your homework. I am sure that you can find a good embryo text that will answer your questions. If not, ask your professor who probably wrote them in the first place.

Most good medical libraries have access to Medline and a whole host of other materials for you to study and find your answers rather than relying on folks on a message to do your work for you. Hint: you remember things that you look up better anyway.
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