May 30, 2015
1. Population, fertility, mortality rates calculation:
For crude birth rates, to pick an example, the rate is calculated by this: (annual births/population) x 1000
So is the population term the initial population at the beginning of the year or the final population at the end of the year?

2. What's the difference between urban sprawl and suburbanization?
I see that in contrast to suburbanization, urban sprawl is a much more negative term since it harms the environment (cutting down trees) and increased residential segregation
But then, as TPR says, "white flight" is a type of suburbanization in which whites from the racially diverse cities move to more racially homogenous suburban areas; wouldn't this also cause environmental disruption and residential segregation?
Feb 4, 2015
Urban sprawl is the uncontrolled growth and development of a city (urban area) into neighboring areas. This can lead to the formation of megalopolis.

Suburbanization is the movement of people out of the cities and into the suburbs - usually suburbs are more expensive areas and highly desired by people because they are quiet neighbourhood with less crime, less pollution, less traffic etc. This ties into the idea of white flight because only those with lots of money can move into the suburbs. Minority group members working low paid jobs often need to stay in the city to find work, they also heavily rely on public transport etc.

If you want to think about it in terms of harm to the environment, any kind of human population expansion is taxing on the planet and will inevitably have some environmental harm/disruption - eg. more need for houses (whether that's in the context of urban sprawl or suburbanization) = more trees being cut down, more roads being built, more habitat loss and habitat fragmentation for the wildlife, more truckloads of consumer goods being transported into the area, more pollution etc (IMO)
May 30, 2015
So let me simplify this:
First you have a city.
If you move to the peripheries of the city, it's urban sprawl.
If you move beyond merely the peripheries, it's suburbanization.
If you move even further, it's return to rural region.
And concepts like residential segregation, environmental injustice, negative environmental influences apply generally to all of the above. Correct?