http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0022572 I think this is a very cool mechanism but as I was reading the paper I sort of hit a brick wall in understanding how it works. They assert that all virus create a double stranded RNA molecule at some point during replication. I've spent about two hours going over all my textbooks, wikipedia, random google searches, you name it, and cannot figure out where this dsRNA molecule occurs other than in two specific situations, when RNA dependent RNA polymerase creates a +RNA from a -RNA for -RNA virus, and when mRNA uses a hairpin mechanism to self-splice introns. However, if self-splicing was the trigger it seems like that would cause all human cells to undergo apoptosis. If anyone could expound on this point and help me understand what universal process exists that all virus create a dsRNA molecule I would really appreciate it. They cite a virology textbook. I feel like I'm missing something really basic.