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few more questions

anudoc

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    1) The clearance of several substances wass measured at a constant GFR and constant urine flow rate, but at increasing plasma concentrations of substance. Under these conditions, clearance will increase at high plasma concentration for which of following substances?
    a creatinine
    b mannitol
    c penicillin
    d phosphate
    e urea

    2)Primary function of lysosomes in steroid producing cells?
    a digest cellular debris
    b hydrolyse spent cellular organelles
    c remove steroid precursors
    d cleave the ester from cholestrol ester to produce free cholestrol

    3)Part of the oral cavity which is directly attached to periosteum?

    4)What bacteria are found in sub gingival calculus?

    5) In which form fluoride is absorbed in intestine?

    6) What is the site of RNA synthesis?

    7) Patient with Hepatitis B would show?
    a HBsAg
    b HBsAg antibodies

    8) Retro virus causes what in infant?

    9)High intensity disinfectant ? Kill Hep B, TB ,all spores

    10) What is the cause of oral mucosa cyanosis?
     

    simkarl

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    1. Dentist
      1) The clearance of several substances wass measured at a constant GFR and constant urine flow rate, but at increasing plasma concentrations of substance. Under these conditions, clearance will increase at high plasma concentration for which of following substances?
      a creatinine
      b mannitol
      c penicillin
      d phosphate -not sure
      e urea .

      2)Primary function of lysosomes in steroid producing cells?
      a digest cellular debris
      b hydrolyse spent cellular organelles
      c remove steroid precursors
      d cleave the ester from cholestrol ester to produce free cholestrol

      3)Part of the oral cavity which is directly attached to periosteum?
      I think attached gingiva

      4)What bacteria are found in sub gingival calculus?

      5) In which form fluoride is absorbed in intestine?

      6) What is the site of RNA synthesis?
      nucleus.

      7) Patient with Hepatitis B would show?
      a HBsAg
      b HBsAg antibodies
      depend on which stage first appears HBsAg during window anti- HBc when immunized anti-HBs

      8) Retro virus causes what in infant?

      9)High intensity disinfectant ? Kill Hep B, TB ,all spores
      what do you mean high intensity disinfectant?

      10) What is the cause of oral mucosa cyanosis?

      please correct me. thanks
       

      I'mFillingFine

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      1. Dental Student
        I believe 1 is creatinine. Aren't inulin and creatinine the two best substances for measuring GFR?

        Also, I think cyanosis of any peripheral region is caused by vasoconstriction or reduced cardiac output. (I don't think the oral mucosa is any different from other peripheral epithelium in that regard.)
         

        skabbaraju

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        Mar 30, 2007
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        1. Dentist
          I believe 1 is creatinine. Aren't inulin and creatinine the two best substances for measuring GFR?

          Also, I think cyanosis of any peripheral region is caused by vasoconstriction or reduced cardiac output. (I don't think the oral mucosa is any different from other peripheral epithelium in that regard.)
          Thats correct!

          Anudoc, can u please post your questions in NBDE Part I ,version 1.0 thread, created by shuntyman. Thank you.
           
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          simkarl

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          1. Dentist
            I believe 1 is creatinine. Aren't inulin and creatinine the two best substances for measuring GFR?

            Also, I think cyanosis of any peripheral region is caused by vasoconstriction or reduced cardiac output. (I don't think the oral mucosa is any different from other peripheral epithelium in that regard.)

            regarding question 1- you are right that creatinine and inuling are for measuring GFR but I understand they ask about substance that when increase concentration in plasma will increase clearence so freely filtered and high excreted in the same time ....inulin and creatinine freely filtered but no secretion or reabsorption happened..

            please correct me ..
             

            I'mFillingFine

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              regarding question 1- you are right that creatinine and inuling are for measuring GFR but I understand they ask about substance that when increase concentration in plasma will increase clearence so freely filtered and high excreted in the same time ....inulin and creatinine freely filtered but no excretion or reabsorption happened..

              please correct me ..

              I think it's somewhat of a trick question, making sure you know which substances are used to measure GFR. It's basically saying, "if there is more blood, what will there be more of?" instead of saying, "What's commonly filtered from the blood?" Since they don't mention anything that would relate to either secretion or reabsorption (which would mean it could NOT be creatinine or inulin), then we would know they were asking about another substance.

              Hope that makes sense! Like if they asked something like, "If the kidneys were suddenly not able to reabsorb anything in the filtrate, what would rise?" then you'd look for an answer like glucose. I think they're just being tricky here.

              Anyone else with input on this? We may be reading too much into it :)
               

              impaction

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                I think it's somewhat of a trick question, making sure you know which substances are used to measure GFR. It's basically saying, "if there is more blood, what will there be more of?" instead of saying, "What's commonly filtered from the blood?" Since they don't mention anything that would relate to either secretion or reabsorption (which would mean it could NOT be creatinine or inulin), then we would know they were asking about another substance.

                Hope that makes sense! Like if they asked something like, "If the kidneys were suddenly not able to reabsorb anything in the filtrate, what would rise?" then you'd look for an answer like glucose. I think they're just being tricky here.

                Anyone else with input on this? We may be reading too much into it :)

                as inulin and creatinine are freely filtered,
                this means that the will be removed from the blood
                or whole of them will be removed from the blood
                it can either by secreation or filtration
                so by increasing directly their concentration in blood, their concentration in urine will increase proportionally

                there is no compound whose excretion in urine is more than its concentration in blood
                because its not possible
                so none other compound fits into the category
                hence answer is creatinine
                 

                simkarl

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                1. Dentist
                  as inulin and creatinine are freely filtered,
                  this means that the will be removed from the blood
                  or whole of them will be removed from the blood
                  it can either by secreation or filtration
                  so by increasing directly their concentration in blood, their concentration in urine will increase proportionally

                  there is no compound whose excretion in urine is more than its concentration in blood
                  because its not possible
                  so none other compound fits into the category
                  hence answer is creatinine

                  if what you say is correct how can measure GFR by these substances..???
                  I know that now secreation for these substances..
                  thanks
                   

                  impaction

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                    now here comes the concept
                    if the substance is freely filtered, and it cannot be secreted or absorbed then it is used to calculate GFR
                    but if the substance is cleared from urine either by....
                    filtration alone
                    or secretion alone
                    or both
                    but there is no reabsorption, then it is used for measuring clearance
                    and moreover the substance that is freely filtered COMPLETELY out of blood & can neither be secreted nor absorbed can be used for both GFR & clearance
                    whereas the substance used exclusively for clearance may or may not be ideal to measure GFR
                     

                    simkarl

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                      i will ask you a question that will help u understanding it.........
                      Q. pick the best option
                      a substance used to measure clearnace, is used to calculate what
                      1. GFR
                      2. renal plasma flow
                      this question is given in solved papers, & the answer given yhere is RPF


                      ok impaction thanks for explanation...
                       
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