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Cell Respiration Help

The Tooth Dr

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Jan 16, 2013
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  1. Dental Student
    Hello everyone, I'm a little confused on what exactly we need to know/don't need to know about glycolysis, citric acid cycle, etc. How much detail do we need to learn? Ex. do we need to know each intermediate molecule in the citric acid cycle? Or is knowing what comes in/out for the overall citric acid cycle sufficient?
    Thanks in advance!
     

    orgoman22

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    1. Non-Student
      Hello everyone, I'm a little confused on what exactly we need to know/don't need to know about glycolysis, citric acid cycle, etc. How much detail do we need to learn? Ex. do we need to know each intermediate molecule in the citric acid cycle? Or is knowing what comes in/out for the overall citric acid cycle sufficient?
      Thanks in advance!
      You need to know when does each pathway occur, the molecules produced and the purpose of each pathway. Be able to compare/contrast them.
      Know how each pathway is regulated and how many ATP's produced.

      Hope this helps.
       
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      orgoman22

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      1. Non-Student
        How many ATP are produced in total, 36 or 38? Does it depend on eukaryotes vs prokaryotes?
        There is a lot of controversy on this question and there is no 100 percent agreement. Here is a very nice essay I think you will enjoy.

        Dr. Romano

        Determining the exact yield of ATP for aerobic respiration is difficult for a number of reasons. In addition to generating ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in prokaryotic cells, proton motive force is also used for functions such as transporting materials across membranes and rotating flagella. Also, some bacteria use different carriers in their electron transport chain than others and the carriers may vary in the number of protons they transport across the membrane. Furthermore, the number of ATP generated per reduced NADH or FADH2 is not always a whole number. For every pair of electrons transported to the electron transport chain by a molecule of NADH, between 2 and 3 ATP are generated. For each pair of electrons transferred by FADH2, between 1 and 2 ATP are generated. In eukaryotic cells, unlike prokaryotes, NADH generated in the cytoplasm during glycolysis must be transported across the mitochondrial membrane before it can transfer electrons to the electron transport chain and this requires energy. As a result, between 1 and 2 ATP are generated from these NADH.

        Total Theoretical Maximum Number of ATP Generated per Glucose in Prokaryotes 38 ATP: 4 from substrate-level phosphorylation; 34 from oxidative phosphorylation. In eukaryotic cells, the theoretical maximum yield of ATP generated per glucose is 36 to 38, depending on how the 2 NADH generated in the cytoplasm during glycolysis enter the mitochondria and whether the resulting yield is 2 or 3 ATP per NADH.
         

        matteral

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        Nov 7, 2015
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        1. Pre-Dental
          There is a lot of controversy on this question and there is no 100 percent agreement. Here is a very nice essay I think you will enjoy.

          Dr. Romano

          Determining the exact yield of ATP for aerobic respiration is difficult for a number of reasons. In addition to generating ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in prokaryotic cells, proton motive force is also used for functions such as transporting materials across membranes and rotating flagella. Also, some bacteria use different carriers in their electron transport chain than others and the carriers may vary in the number of protons they transport across the membrane. Furthermore, the number of ATP generated per reduced NADH or FADH2 is not always a whole number. For every pair of electrons transported to the electron transport chain by a molecule of NADH, between 2 and 3 ATP are generated. For each pair of electrons transferred by FADH2, between 1 and 2 ATP are generated. In eukaryotic cells, unlike prokaryotes, NADH generated in the cytoplasm during glycolysis must be transported across the mitochondrial membrane before it can transfer electrons to the electron transport chain and this requires energy. As a result, between 1 and 2 ATP are generated from these NADH.

          Total Theoretical Maximum Number of ATP Generated per Glucose in Prokaryotes 38 ATP: 4 from substrate-level phosphorylation; 34 from oxidative phosphorylation. In eukaryotic cells, the theoretical maximum yield of ATP generated per glucose is 36 to 38, depending on how the 2 NADH generated in the cytoplasm during glycolysis enter the mitochondria and whether the resulting yield is 2 or 3 ATP per NADH.
          Thank you! This is the clarification I was looking for.
           
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