I'm submitting an abstract to ARVO, and I'm wondering how to cite another article within the abstract. For instance, in the background section I write: "Doobie et al. have shown that blah" Should I write: (a) "Doobie et. al have shown that blah (2003)" (b) Properly cite the article at the end of the abstract? (c) Replace Doobie by "A large study has shown..." or something generic like "It has been reported that...", "It has been shown..." etc. I realize that citing something within an abstract is rarely, if ever, done - I have yet to find an ARVO and PubMed abstracts that does. But I personally think that directly citing the article that provides background for my study is helpful...but perhaps inappropriate for an abstract. Any advice would be appreciated.