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Lonely Sol

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Hey, I guess I am just having a brain fart or something, but i kinda forgot the pathway for epinephrine.

Does anyone know how does epinephrine produce more glucose?

*Any help will be greatly appreciated!!
 

denttiger

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Are you wanting like ... FBPase-II breaks dwong Fructose-2,6-Bisphosphate which then inhibts PFK-1 and therefore inhibits glycolysis.. while promoting Gluconeogenesis by activating FBPase-I?? Or are you wanting something else?

P.S.= I've been studying orgo all day and my brain is FRIED.. so this biochem might not be correct but if this is the pathway you're talking about I'll look the rest of it up.
 

Lonely Sol

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Are you wanting like ... FBPase-II breaks dwong Fructose-2,6-Bisphosphate which then inhibts PFK-1 and therefore inhibits glycolysis.. while promoting Gluconeogenesis by activating FBPase-I?? Or are you wanting something else?

P.S.= I've been studying orgo all day and my brain is FRIED.. so this biochem might not be correct but if this is the pathway you're talking about I'll look the rest of it up.

Ok, that makes sense!, Thanks!

Another question, Where are JG cells located in the kidney? (is it in distal tubules?)
 

denttiger

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haha I'm glad that explanation made sense cuz I didn't think it was going to! I have NO clue on your 2nd question... where are you getting these from if you don't mind me asking? And these are intense bio questions.. do you think this kind of stuff is really asked on the DAT??
 

Lonely Sol

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haha I'm glad that explanation made sense cuz I didn't think it was going to! I have NO clue on your 2nd question... where are you getting these from if you don't mind me asking? And these are intense bio questions.. do you think this kind of stuff is really asked on the DAT??

Well I am just trying to memorize anything and everything, since I have to beat a fairly high bio score from previous take. I might never see this on there but its better safe than sorry, especially now, since they pull bio questions from nowhere.
 

poc91nc

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juxtaglomerular cells are located in the kidney and produce renin right?
 

poc91nc

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juxtaGLOMERULAR...hmm..I would assume that it's on the proximal side...could be wrong?
 

Lonely Sol

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juxtaglomerular cells are located in the kidney and produce renin right?

Yea they are trigerred by macula densa, which controls the osmolarity gradient of the distal tubule.
But as far as location, I have no idea, its either proximal or distal, but not sure!
 

poc91nc

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Yes they would be on the proximal side of the nephron. I just checked...they are located in the afferent arteriole. Blood enters the glomerulus by way of the affterent arteriole. So the name implies the location.

While we're talking about random stuff....care to differentiate between ground substance and the extracellular matrix? Pretty random...but I thought it was an interesting fact

Back to studying
 

Lonely Sol

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Yes they would be on the proximal side of the nephron. I just checked...they are located in the afferent arteriole. Blood enters the glomerulus by way of the affterent arteriole. So the name implies the location.

While we're talking about random stuff....care to differentiate between ground substance and the extracellular matrix? Pretty random...but I thought it was an interesting fact

Back to studying

I've never heard of ground substances, but I guess after checking wikipedia, they are both the same things, I wouldn't have known that!

Are there anymore weird bio questions?! Maybe this can be a weird bio question thread, so we can all have them in one thread!
 

poc91nc

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Oh hell yeah!!! I've wanted to start a oddball bio thread for awhile. I'm down if you're down

Actually ground substance is the non-collagenous portion of the extracellular matrix. It is composed of glycoprotein, fibrous protein, and some interstitial fluid.
 

poc91nc

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Here is another weird bio question

How does a cis-element differ from a promoter?

How does the water mold (oomycota) differ from true fungi?

What cells of the pancrease secrete the bicarbonate portion of pancreatic juice?

What part of the ruminant digestive system is most similar to the adult stomach?

What is coprophagy and what animals practice coprophagy?

The symbiotic organism in the stomach of a termite is a protist/bacteria?

What is the purpose of acetone in gram staining?

When making recombinant proteins...what the purpose of the lacZ gene and amp resistant gene?

What type of polymerase is used in PCR...why?
 
B

BodybldgDoc

here are few more to add to the list

What are blood parasites called?

what type of bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer?

How does one measure antibiotic resistance?

what are RFLP's and what purpose do they serve?
 
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Lonely Sol

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Here is another weird bio question

How does a cis-element differ from a promoter?

How does the water mold (oomycota) differ from true fungi?

What cells of the pancrease secrete the bicarbonate portion of pancreatic juice?

What part of the ruminant digestive system is most similar to the adult stomach?

What is coprophagy and what animals practice coprophagy?

The symbiotic organism in the stomach of a termite is a protist/bacteria?

What is the purpose of acetone in gram staining?

When making recombinant proteins...what the purpose of the lacZ gene and amp resistant gene?

What type of polymerase is used in PCR...why?



Well I am going to attempt to answer the bold ones.

2. Water mold (oomycota) are flagellated and they have cellulose cell way unlike true fungi which have chitinous cell wall.

3. HCO3- juices are secreted by exocrine glands of the pancreas, which are also known as Accinar cells.

4. The stomach of a cow for example is four chambered, two of which are omasum and abossum (spelling might be wrong). I think abossum function like the human stomach by breaking down food and omassum is ussually used to absorb some material. So finally, abossum functions like human stomach.

6. The symbiont in the stomach of the herbivore is a protist. Specifically, there are froma subgroup protozoa.

7. There are 3 types of genes produces when lactose is present in E-coli, for example. Lac Z, Lac Y, and Lac A. For this question Lac Z, produces B-galactosidase, this enzyme aids in the breakdown of lactose to gluctose and galactose. One thing that you might need to know is that, this is an inducible system, which means if lactose is not present then the 3 genes will not be transcribed.

8. DNA polymerase is used in the PCR, since PCR is used to make multiple identical copies of a short peice of DNA.


**If anyone else know anymore answers or questions, plz post them! This will be a great aid for the out of the blue questions.
 

Lonely Sol

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here are few more to add to the list

What are blood parasites called?

what type of bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer?

How does one measure antibiotic resistance?

what are RFLP's and what purpose do they serve?

There are two types of eubacteria, gram positive which have thick peptidoglycan wall and gram negetive, which have very thing peptidoglycan wall. Gram negetive are very dangerous as compare to gram positive bacteria.
 

poc91nc

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You the man lonely...impressive!!!

To add a few things...

The lacZ gene is used in the vector to determine if the vector picked up the gene (which will be used to make the recombinant protein)!!! If the lacZ gene is non-functional or paritally functional (as is usually the case) we know that the vector has the gene of interest incorporated into it! The amp resistant gene is to determine if the E.coli were properly transfected with the plasmids. Two very important things we must verify.

The oomycota are also diploid dominant has opposed to haploid dominance as seen in fungi

Coprophagy is the ingestion of one's own feces to complete the digestion of cellulose. This is practiced by rodents and hares!!

When doing PCR...we must use a very special polymerase. If we used normal polymerase...the enzyme would become deactivated when we apply heat to seperate the complementary strands. Therefore we must use Taq polymerase because it is heat resistant. If I recall correctly...Taq polymerase is found in thermophils...

Organic solvent must be added to the gram stains to dissolve the lipid membrane that surrounds the thin cell wall in gram negative bacteria....gram positive don't have a lipid membrane over the thick peptidoglycan layer

A cis-element is the molecular biologist/biochemist term for the enhancer region. This is a DNA transcriptional regulator that has the ability to regulate transcription of a gene thousands of bp downstream or upstream from a gene. Very interesting....
 

poc91nc

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Are blood parasites plasmodium??? shooting from the hip here...

RFLP...exploits differences in endonuclease sites. If two peoples dna are exposed to endonuclease....chances are...due to polymorphisms...the endonuclease sites will be different. Therefore, when electrophoresd in agarose gel...the fragments will be of differing length.

Now...once the fragments have been electrophoresed...what chemical do we add to fully assay the DNA???? What type of lighting is required???

What type of modification prevents our own DNA from being cleaved by endonuclease?

What is the term for DNA that is transcriptionaly silent?

What is the most common DNA binding motif?

Where do DNA binding motifs bind?

Differentiate between western blot, northern blot, southern blot.

How many histones are in a nucleosome? How many bp are usually in a nucleosome?
 

hoak

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You guys are good. I just want to sum up your answers

1. what type of bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer?
Gram (+) bacteria have thick peptidoglycan layer. This thick layer helps them to keep the gram stain.

2. How does a cis-element differ from a promoter?

The cis-element, I think, is the regulator-binding-site whereas promoter is RNA Polymerase (or TF) binding site. It is called cis-element because it can only effect gene expression on its stand (cis-acting).

3. what are RFLP's and what purpose do they serve?

RFLP stands for Restriction Fragment L (dont remember) Polymorphism. Each DNA has different cutting (restriction) sites for a specific endonuclease. That is, different DNAs will give different fragments when cut with an enzym. This characteristic is used as "DNA finger print": Those bands of DNAs you usually watch on CSI or stuff like that.
 
B

BodybldgDoc

Are blood parasites plasmodium??? shooting from the hip here...

I realized that this question I posed was a bit vague so in order to make it more specific let me rephrase.

What are blood parasites called that cause malaria in humans?

Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium.

P.Falciparum is the most widespread and dangerous of the four types of Plasmodium species.
 

blueyes34

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Please keep this thread going...all I have is the Kaplan Blue Book, my DAT is June 1, and I am starting to feel ill-prepared for the Bio section. This thread is helping me learn some things that are definetly NOT in Kaplan! Thanks everyone for all of your efforts.:thumbup:
 

Lonely Sol

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Are blood parasites plasmodium??? shooting from the hip here...

Differentiate between western blot, northern blot, southern blot.

How many histones are in a nucleosome? How many bp are usually in a nucleosome?

1. Northern blot is used to detect RNA
Sothern blot is used to detect DNA
Western blow is used to detect protiens.


2. There are 8 histones in 1 nucleosome. There are 4 nucleosome ussually per gene. I think there are 146 bp in a nucleosome
 

Lonely Sol

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1. Describe ELISA?

2. How many times is DNA wrapped around each histone?

3. DIfference between kin selection and altruism?

4. What is the function of basal cells and where are they ussually found at?

5. Difference between squamosh, cubodial, and columnar?
 

Lonely Sol

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Are blood parasites plasmodium??? shooting from the hip here...


What is the term for DNA that is transcriptionaly silent?

DO you mean like heterochromatin and euchromatin.

If so, then heterochromatin is the inactive one and euchromatin are used for transcription and translation.
 
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hoak

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1. what chemical do we add to fully assay the DNA???? What type of lighting is required??

I think we add a probe, a radioactive nucleotide fragment which is complementary to a specific portions of fragments. We then can analyze the film with X-ray.

2.What type of modification prevents our own DNA from being cleaved by endonuclease?

By methylation (adding methyl groups)

3.How many histones are in a nucleosome? How many bp are usually in a nucleosome?

8 hitstones: 2 H2A, 2 H2B, 2 H3 and 2 H4. As I remember, each nucleosome has about 200 bp including the linkage strand

4. Difference between squamosh, cubodial, and columnar?


Squamoush : flat-shape cells
cubodial : cubic-shape cells
columnar: column-shape cells


5. What is the term for DNA that is transcriptionaly silent?

I think it is called coding DNA-strand (or non-sense DNA strand). Heterochromatin and euchromatin prefer to chromosome, not DNA.
 

USU24

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1. Describe ELISA?

2. How many times is DNA wrapped around each histone?

3. DIfference between kin selection and altruism?

4. What is the function of basal cells and where are they ussually found at?

5. Difference between squamosh, cubodial, and columnar?

1. ELISA, Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, it's when you have a sample and you put it in usually a microwell plate that is coated with antibodies. The antigens on your sample bind to the antibodies, then you'll add a secondary antibody wich will bind to your sample, then you'll add an enzyme that will develop color, then you can read the plate with color correlating to concentration of the antigen in your sample. You have to incubate and then rinse after every step to inscure that there are no unbound antibodies floating around. There are variations on this, but that's the basic idea. There are also inverse elisa's that correlate no color with higher concentration. Cool?
 

toothy85

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1. what chemical do we add to fully assay the DNA???? What type of lighting is required??

I think we add a probe, a radioactive nucleotide fragment which is complementary to a specific portions of fragments. We then can analyze the film with X-ray.

2.What type of modification prevents our own DNA from being cleaved by endonuclease?

By methylation (adding methyl groups)

3.How many histones are in a nucleosome? How many bp are usually in a nucleosome?

8 hitstones: 2 H2A, 2 H2B, 2 H3 and 2 H4. As I remember, each nucleosome has about 200 bp including the linkage strand

4. Difference between squamosh, cubodial, and columnar?


Squamoush : flat-shape cells
cubodial : cubic-shape cells
columnar: column-shape cells


5. What is the term for DNA that is transcriptionaly silent?

I think it is called coding DNA-strand (or non-sense DNA strand). Heterochromatin and euchromatin prefer to chromosome, not DNA.[/QUOTE]

wrong
 

poc91nc

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Multiple choice round (these aren't from any guide....just made them up from crap I've been studying)


Which of the following best describes the attachment of a tendon to a bone that does not move:

a) origin
b) suture
c) synovial joint
d) insertion

Which of the following represents the most abundant intermediate filament:
a) keratin
b) vimentin
c) neurofilament
d) actin
e) two of the above

Which of the following protein(s) are associated with a desmosome:
a) cadherins
b) porin
c) clathrin
d) two of the above
e) all of the above

Which of the following is the best description of type II A muscle fiber:

a) It is fast twitch, with large amounts of mitochondria and myoglobin.
b) It is slow twitch, with large amounts of myoglobin/mitochondria, and is the most fatigue resistant
c) It is fast twitch, therefore fatigues easily, and has low amounts of myoglobin and mitochondria
d) It is fast twitch, fatigue resistant, with large amounts of myoglobin and mitochondria.
e) none of the above

Sarcoma is:

a) Can be used interchangebly with carcinoma
b) Cancer of the epithelial tissue
c) Cancer of connective tissue
d) Cancer of the skin
e) two of the above

Which of the following pertains to an oncogene:

a) A gene coding for a membrane protein responsible for initiating a kinase cascade which will ultimately promote cell division.
b) A gene coding for a membrane protein responsible for the initiation of a kinase cascade involved in the promotion of cell division, that has undergone a mutation therfore is capable of initiating the cascade despite the absence of an initiating substance
c) A regulatory protein that is involved in the regulation of G1
d) A defective cyclin
e) Mitosis promoting factor

Which of the following are granular leukocytes:

a) Basophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils
b) Macrophages, Lymphocytes, Mast cells
c) Natural Killer Cells, Basophils, Monocytes
d) Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils
e) none of the above

Which of the following have phagocytic ability:

a) Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils
b) Eosinophils, Monocytes
c) Basophils, Macrophages, Lymphocytes
d) two of the above
e) none of the above

Interferons are commonly produced by cells following a viral invasion. Which of the following statements concerning interferons is false:

a) They can attract phagocytes
b) They are viral specific
c) They are host specific
d) Interferons come in three types; alpha, beta, gama
e) Two of the above

Which of the following gives the order of leukocytes; starting from most abundant to least abundant?

a) Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils
b) Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils
c) Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophis, Lymphocytes
d) Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes
e) Neutrophils, Monocytes, Basophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes

Which is the least abundant immunoglobulin:

a) IgE
b) IgA
c) IgD
d) IgM
e) IgG
 

poc91nc

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If I recall correctly....I think the most common DNA binding motif is the helix-turn-helix motif.

DNA binding motifs usually bind to the major groove.
 

poc91nc

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1. what chemical do we add to fully assay the DNA???? What type of lighting is required??

I think we add a probe, a radioactive nucleotide fragment which is complementary to a specific portions of fragments. We then can analyze the film with X-ray.

2.What type of modification prevents our own DNA from being cleaved by endonuclease?

By methylation (adding methyl groups)

3.How many histones are in a nucleosome? How many bp are usually in a nucleosome?

8 hitstones: 2 H2A, 2 H2B, 2 H3 and 2 H4. As I remember, each nucleosome has about 200 bp including the linkage strand

4. Difference between squamosh, cubodial, and columnar?


Squamoush : flat-shape cells
cubodial : cubic-shape cells
columnar: column-shape cells


5. What is the term for DNA that is transcriptionaly silent?

I think it is called coding DNA-strand (or non-sense DNA strand). Heterochromatin and euchromatin prefer to chromosome, not DNA.[/QUOTE]

wrong

For the DNA electrophoresis...I was alluding to ethidium bromide and UV light is required.

Just another tib-bit...Ethidium bromide is an intercalating agent

Good stuff!!!
 

Lonely Sol

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Which of the following best describes the attachment of a tendon to a bone that does not move:

a) origin
b) suture
c) synovial joint
d) insertion

Which of the following represents the most abundant intermediate filament:
a) keratin
b) vimentin
c) neurofilament
d) actin
e) two of the above


Which of the following is the best description of type II A muscle fiber:

a) It is fast twitch, with large amounts of mitochondria and myoglobin.
b) It is slow twitch, with large amounts of myoglobin/mitochondria, and is the most fatigue resistant
c) It is fast twitch, therefore fatigues easily, and has low amounts of myoglobin and mitochondria
d) It is fast twitch, fatigue resistant, with large amounts of myoglobin and mitochondria.
e) none of the above

Sarcoma is:

a) Can be used interchangebly with carcinoma
b) Cancer of the epithelial tissue
c) Cancer of connective tissue
d) Cancer of the skin
e) two of the above


Which of the following are granular leukocytes:

a) Basophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils
b) Macrophages, Lymphocytes, Mast cells
c) Natural Killer Cells, Basophils, Monocytes
d) Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils
e) none of the above

Which of the following have phagocytic ability:

a) Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils
b) Eosinophils, Monocytes
c) Basophils, Macrophages, Lymphocytes
d) two of the above
e) none of the above**Not sure**


Interferons are commonly produced by cells following a viral invasion. Which of the following statements concerning interferons is false:

a) They can attract phagocytes
b) They are viral specific
c) They are host specific
d) Interferons come in three types; alpha, beta, gama
e) Two of the above

Which of the following gives the order of leukocytes; starting from most abundant to least abundant?

a) Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils
b) Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils
c) Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophis, Lymphocytes
d) Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes
e) Neutrophils, Monocytes, Basophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes

[/QUOTE]
 

Lonely Sol

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This thread is getting good!! I will post some more when I get home, I am trying to do lab work and sdn at the same time, I guess I am an addict!:D :D
 
B

BodybldgDoc

5. What is the term for DNA that is transcriptionaly silent?

Introns or "junk" DNA

2. How many times is DNA wrapped around each histone?

2.5 turns

3. DIfference between kin selection and altruism?

An altruistic behavior is one in which an individual (the donor) performs an action that helps another animal (the recipient) with no apparent advantage to itself.
Kin Selection is the evolutionary mechanism that selects for those behaviors that increase the inclusive fitness of the donor.

Which is the least abundant immunoglobulin:

a) IgE
b) IgA
c) IgD
d) IgM
e) IgG


a) IgE
 

poc91nc

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5. What is the term for DNA that is transcriptionaly silent?

Introns or "junk" DNA

Ah...but intronic DNA is transcribed and later spliced by slicosomes.

I was referring to euchromatin and heterochromatin specifically, but another person said that that was more along the lines of chromosomes rather than DNA itself.

Euchromatin is Expressed...that's how I remember it

Another type of transcriptionally silent DNA is the satellite DNA...ATATAT repeats that are usually localized to the telomeric region
 
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poc91nc

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Which of the following best describes the attachment of a tendon to a bone that does not move:

a) origin
b) suture
c) synovial joint
d) insertion

Correct!!!

Which of the following represents the most abundant intermediate filament:
a) keratin
b) vimentin
c) neurofilament
d) actin
e) two of the above

I read that it was vimentin...but it does seem a bit counter-intuitive...I was hoping someone could confirm this!!!

Which of the following is the best description of type II A muscle fiber:

a) It is fast twitch, with large amounts of mitochondria and myoglobin.
b) It is slow twitch, with large amounts of myoglobin/mitochondria, and is the most fatigue resistant
c) It is fast twitch, therefore fatigues easily, and has low amounts of myoglobin and mitochondria
d) It is fast twitch, fatigue resistant, with large amounts of myoglobin and mitochondria.
e) none of the above

A and D are essentially the same thing...but D is better because typeII A is indeed fatigue resistant.

Sarcoma is:

a) Can be used interchangebly with carcinoma
b) Cancer of the epithelial tissue
c) Cancer of connective tissue
d) Cancer of the skin
e) two of the above

Correct!!!

Which of the following are granular leukocytes:

a) Basophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils
b) Macrophages, Lymphocytes, Mast cells
c) Natural Killer Cells, Basophils, Monocytes
d) Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils
e) none of the above

Correct!!!

Which of the following have phagocytic ability:

a) Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils
b) Eosinophils, Monocytes
c) Basophils, Macrophages, Lymphocytes
d) two of the above
e) none of the above**Not sure**

I am under the impression that all granular leukocytes have phagocytic ability. However...basophils and eosinophils have very limited phagocytic ability. The main function of eosinophils is the secretion of destructive enzymes and basophils will produce hitamines/prostaglandins.

Interferons are commonly produced by cells following a viral invasion. Which of the following statements concerning interferons is false:

a) They can attract phagocytes
b) They are viral specific
c) They are host specific
d) Interferons come in three types; alpha, beta, gama
e) Two of the above

If I recall correctly...A, C, D are true. However...interferons are not viral specific...but rather host. For example...a human interferon will have no effect on a mouse. Interferons are rather generic and apply to a wide variety of viruses. Someone correct me if I'm wrong.
Which of the following gives the order of leukocytes; starting from most abundant to least abundant?

a) Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils
b) Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils
c) Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophis, Lymphocytes
d) Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes
e) Neutrophils, Monocytes, Basophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes

Correct!!!! Never Let Monkeys Eat Bannanas!!!!
[/QUOTE]
 
B

BodybldgDoc

What kind of tail is added after RNA splicing?

What is a realized niche?

Are humans r or k selected species? What kind of curve do they exhibit?

What does Gause's principle dictate?

When sperm penetrates a frog egg, a reorganization of the cytoplasm results in the appearance of what?

what are lancelets?

what is the purpose of the major histocompatibility complex?

autosomal recessive trait appear more in men or women? Does the trait tend to skip generations?

the male determining gene in humans is called what?

what is haplodiploidy? what percent is the average relatedness between sisters that belong to haplodiploid species?
 

poc91nc

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What kind of tail is added after RNA splicing?

What is a realized niche?
Bending over and grabbing your ankles. Actually...realized niche is sort of a compromise. Certain elements of the true niche are present...but there are compromises. Realized niche would be present among animals that share common niche elements and therefore must make modifications if they are to coexist.

Are humans r or k selected species? What kind of curve do they exhibit?
Humans are K selected....sigmoidal. We require lots of post-natal care

What does Gause's principle dictate?
No idea....

When sperm penetrates a frog egg, a reorganization of the cytoplasm results in the appearance of what?
Gray cresent area. Futhermore....a blastomore resulting from indeterminate cleavage (pertaining to a frog)...can develop into a viable organism if and only if it has a portion of the gray cresent area.

what are lancelets?
lancelets are invertebrate chordates...they do not lose their notochord. By the way...the notochord is mesoderm derived.

what is the purpose of the major histocompatibility complex?
To recognize self from non-self. Most cells of the body use MHC-I, while macrophages use MHC-II.

autosomal recessive trait appear more in men or women? Does the trait tend to skip generations?
Equally in both sexes....and it can skip generations

the male determining gene in humans is called what?
I was about to say Y chromosome...but what is it??

what is haplodiploidy? what percent is the average relatedness between sisters that belong to haplodiploid species?
Eh....sounds like a riddle...no idea man...

Good stuff!!
 

poc91nc

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Poly A tail....and 5' GTP gap....both are post-transcriptional modifications
 

USU24

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1. What kind of tail is added after RNA splicing?

2. What is a realized niche?

3. Are humans r or k selected species? What kind of curve do they exhibit?

4. What does Gause's principle dictate?

5. When sperm penetrates a frog egg, a reorganization of the cytoplasm results in the appearance of what?

6. what are lancelets?

7. what is the purpose of the major histocompatibility complex?

8. autosomal recessive trait appear more in men or women? Does the trait tend to skip generations?

9. the male determining gene in humans is called what?

10. what is haplodiploidy? what percent is the average relatedness between sisters that belong to haplodiploid species?

1. Poly A
2. realized niche = fundamental niche - competition
3. K selected, sigmoidal curve
4. Two competing species cannot stably exist in the same niche, consequently two related species often diverge
5. What is the gray crescent area?
6. primitive chordates, important in the study of the origin of vertebrates. It's a marine animal, looks like a tiny fish. Have a notochord.
7. gene dense region on the mammalian genome. code genes involved in immunological functions.
8. Autosomal recessive traits should appear equally in both sexes. It could skip generations. Recessive sex-linked traits would appear more often in men and would appear to skip generations because females would most likely only be carriers.
9. SRY. (Sex determining Region Y), it's on the Y chromosome
10. sex determining mechanism which uses number of chromosomes to determine sex. Haploids are males, diploids are females. used by bees and ants. Two full sisters would be 3/4 related
 

USU24

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1. What is a sieve cell?

2. What is erythroblastosis fetalis?

3. The umbilical cord is formed from what?

4. ribosome binds to mRNA where?

5. What is the purpose of the smooth ER?

6. What are all the sources of estrogen?
 

poc91nc

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More bio questions I just made up...


The brown color of fecal matter is most likely attributed to:
a) bilirubin
b) bile
c) urobilinogen
d) two of the above
e) none of the above

Which of the following are associated with anchoring junctions:
a) hemidesmosome
b) adherins junction
c) cadherins
d) tight junctions
e) all of the above

Which of the following base pair substitutions will most likely result in a truncated protein:
a) missense
b) nonsense
c) silent
d) frame-shift
e) all of the above

The term that best describes cell signaling that targets only a few neighboring cells is best described as:
a) autocrine signaling
b) paracrine signaling
c) endocrine signaling
d) synaptic signaling
e) two of the above

Hashimotos Disease is best described as:
a) anti-body mediated attack on the thyroid
b) non-specific immune attack on the thyroid
c) autoimmune disease involving a cell-mediated attack on the thyroid
d) humoral response that targets the thyroid
e) none of the above

A pheremone shows the ability to accelerate reproductive maturity in an organism. Which of the following is the correct term for this particular pheremone:
a) primer pheremone
b) releaser pheremone
c) sexual pheremone
d) primal pheremone
e) none of the above

Traverse tubules are absent in which of the following:
a) smooth muscle
b) skeletal muscle
c) cardiac muscle
d) two of the above
e) all of the above

The fructose portion of semen is produced by:
a) seminal vesicles many
b) sertoli cells
c) seminiferous tubules
d) epididymis
e) prostate gland

Which of the following structures specifically controls the production and release of melatonin?
a) pineal gland
b) suprachiasmatic nucleus
c) midbrain
d) anterior pituitary
e) brocas area

Which of the following will shorten in a muscle contraction:
a) H-zone
b) A-band
c) Z-line
d) I-band
e) two of the above

Which of the following structures is responsible for the propagation of intracellular action potentials in the sarcomere of skeletal muscle:
a) sarcoplasmic reticulum
b) acetylcholine
c) gap junctions
d) traverse tubules
e) sarcolema

Which of the following a correct term to describe a type of contraction that involves the shortening of skeletal muscle:
a) eccentric isometric contraction
b) concentric isometric contraction
c) eccentric isotonic contraction
d) concentric isotonic contraction
e) none of the above

Which of the following is an example of a semilunar valve:
a) bicuspid valve
b) tricuspid valve
c) mitral valve
d) pulmonary valve
e) two of the above

Which of the following will serve to alleviate torque during the replication of DNA?
a) topoisomerase
b) helicase
c) primase
d) ligase
e) all of the above
 

poc91nc

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1. What is a sieve cell?
Can't remember specifically but isn't it a phloem cell or xylem cell...

2. What is erythroblastosis fetalis?
This is when the mother is rh- and fetus is rh+...if the mother has another rh+ fetus that fetus is at risk because the mother will produce anti-rh antibodies thus causing the fetal blood cells to agglutinate. This is a classic example of passive immunity. Usually to prevent an immune response...isn't the mother given an injection of anti-rh antibodies after the first birth?

3. The umbilical cord is formed from what?
Isn't the umbilical cord allantosis derived? the placenta chorion derived? and the chorion derived from the trophoblast...

4. ribosome binds to mRNA where?
the codon?
5. What is the purpose of the smooth ER?
smooth er is involved in lipid synthesis and detoxification. The liver would have large amounts of smooth er
6. What are all the sources of estrogen?
adrenal cortex....gonads...
 

Mstoothlady2012

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Good thread! I made up some questions too...

LH & FSH are regulated by what?

what secretes estrogen?

progesterone is secreted during which phase of menstrual cycle?

what are the 4 phases of menstrual cycle?

ovulation is caused by what?

what causes endometrium to slough off?

If fertilization occurs developing placenta produces what?

what are episomes?

which layer forms epithelial linings of the digestive & respiraotry tracts?

which layer permits gas exchange in an egg?
a allantois
b yolk sac
c chorion
d amnion

which circulatory system do anthropods use?
a closed circulatory system
b simple diffusion
c open circulatory system
d cells are in direct contact with internal & external environment.

Each hemoglobin molecule can bind to how many molecules of oxygen?

let me know if you want more...
 

supraman

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More bio questions I just made up...


The brown color of fecal matter is most likely attributed to:
a) bilirubin
b) bile
c) urobilinogen
d) two of the above
e) none of the above

Which of the following are associated with anchoring junctions:
a) hemidesmosome
b) adherins junction
c) cadherins
d) tight junctions
e) all of the above

Which of the following base pair substitutions will most likely result in a truncated protein:
a) missense
b) nonsense
c) silent
d) frame-shift
e) all of the above

The term that best describes cell signaling that targets only a few neighboring cells is best described as:
a) autocrine signaling
b) paracrine signaling
c) endocrine signaling
d) synaptic signaling
e) two of the above

Hashimotos Disease is best described as:
a) anti-body mediated attack on the thyroid
b) non-specific immune attack on the thyroid
c) autoimmune disease involving a cell-mediated attack on the thyroid
d) humoral response that targets the thyroid
e) none of the above

A pheremone shows the ability to accelerate reproductive maturity in an organism. Which of the following is the correct term for this particular pheremone:
a) primer pheremone
b) releaser pheremone
c) sexual pheremone
d) primal pheremone
e) none of the above

Traverse tubules are absent in which of the following:
a) smooth muscle
b) skeletal muscle
c) cardiac muscle
d) two of the above
e) all of the above

The fructose portion of semen is produced by:
a) seminal vesicles many
b) sertoli cells
c) seminiferous tubules
d) epididymis
e) prostate gland

Which of the following structures specifically controls the production and release of melatonin?
a) pineal gland
b) suprachiasmatic nucleus
c) midbrain
d) anterior pituitary
e) brocas area

Which of the following will shorten in a muscle contraction:
a) H-zone
b) A-band
c) Z-line
d) I-band
e) two of the above

Which of the following structures is responsible for the propagation of intracellular action potentials in the sarcomere of skeletal muscle:
a) sarcoplasmic reticulum
b) acetylcholine
c) gap junctions
d) traverse tubules
e) sarcolema

Which of the following a correct term to describe a type of contraction that involves the shortening of skeletal muscle:
a) eccentric isometric contraction
b) concentric isometric contraction
c) eccentric isotonic contraction
d) concentric isotonic contraction
e) none of the above

Which of the following is an example of a semilunar valve:
a) bicuspid valve
b) tricuspid valve
c) mitral valve
d) pulmonary valve
e) two of the above

Which of the following will serve to alleviate torque during the replication of DNA?
a) topoisomerase
b) helicase
c) primase
d) ligase
e) all of the above

What subject or class does information like this fall into?? Is this physiology?? Anatomy?? Damn I haven't seen any of this stuff at all yet lol
 

poc91nc

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Most of that stuff is from physiology...with tid-bits of biochem thrown in.

I had a really weak background in physiology when I started studying...so most of those questions were made up from what i've been studying lately
 

poc91nc

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Good thread! I made up some questions too...

LH & FSH are regulated by what?
neurosecretory substances produced in the hypothalamus...or releasing hormones

what secretes estrogen?
Estrogen is secreted by both the adrenal cortex and ovaries

progesterone is secreted during which phase of menstrual cycle?
During ovulation and proliferative phase

what are the 4 phases of menstrual cycle?
menstural phase, proliferative phase, ovulation, secretory phase
Estrogen levels are highest towards the end of the proliferative phase (right before ovulation)

ovulation is caused by what?
mid cycle surge in LH....caused by positive feedback from estrogen from the ovarian follicle

what causes endometrium to slough off?
The absences of fertilization...If fertilization does not occur...the corpus luteum degrades into the corpus albicans...estrogen and progesterone act via negative feedback to inhibit LH and FSH...specifically it is LH that is needed to maintain the corpus luteum. If fertilization occurs...the chorion will produce HCG to maintain the corpus luteum...

If fertilization occurs developing placenta produces what?
progesterone and estrogen...this occurs at about three months

what are episomes?
????

which layer forms epithelial linings of the digestive & respiraotry tracts?
endoderm

which layer permits gas exchange in an egg?
a allantois
b yolk sac
c chorion
d amnion
chorion

which circulatory system do anthropods use?
a closed circulatory system
b simple diffusion
c open circulatory system
d cells are in direct contact with internal & external environment.
what are anthropods?
Each hemoglobin molecule can bind to how many molecules of oxygen?
4 units of oxygen....hb is a tetramer composed of two alpha chains and two beta chains

let me know if you want more...

good stuff
 

Lonely Sol

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The brown color of fecal matter is most likely attributed to:
a) bilirubin
b) bile
c) urobilinogen
d) two of the above
e) none of the above

Which of the following are associated with anchoring junctions:
a) hemidesmosome
b) adherins junction
c) cadherins
d) tight junctions
e) all of the above

Which of the following base pair substitutions will most likely result in a truncated protein:
a) missense
b) nonsense
c) silent
d) frame-shift
e) all of the above

The term that best describes cell signaling that targets only a few neighboring cells is best described as:
a) autocrine signaling
b) paracrine signaling
c) endocrine signaling
d) synaptic signaling
e) two of the above

Hashimotos Disease is best described as:
a) anti-body mediated attack on the thyroid
b) non-specific immune attack on the thyroid
c) autoimmune disease involving a cell-mediated attack on the thyroid
d) humoral response that targets the thyroid
e) none of the above

A pheremone shows the ability to accelerate reproductive maturity in an organism. Which of the following is the correct term for this particular pheremone:
a) primer pheremone
b) releaser pheremone
c) sexual pheremone
d) primal pheremone
e) none of the above

Traverse tubules are absent in which of the following:
a) smooth muscle
b) skeletal muscle
c) cardiac muscle
d) two of the above
e) all of the above

The fructose portion of semen is produced by:
a) seminal vesicles many
b) sertoli cells
c) seminiferous tubules
d) epididymis
e) prostate gland

Which of the following structures specifically controls the production and release of melatonin?
a) pineal gland
b) suprachiasmatic nucleus
c) midbrain
d) anterior pituitary
e) brocas area

Which of the following will shorten in a muscle contraction:
a) H-zone
b) A-band
c) Z-line
d) I-band
e) two of the above

Which of the following structures is responsible for the propagation of intracellular action potentials in the sarcomere of skeletal muscle:
a) sarcoplasmic reticulum
b) acetylcholine
c) gap junctions
d) traverse tubules
e) sarcolema

Which of the following a correct term to describe a type of contraction that involves the shortening of skeletal muscle:
a) eccentric isometric contraction
b) concentric isometric contraction
c) eccentric isotonic contraction
d) concentric isotonic contraction
e) none of the above

Which of the following is an example of a semilunar valve:
a) bicuspid valve
b) tricuspid valve
c) mitral valve
d) pulmonary valve
e) two of the above

Which of the following will serve to alleviate torque during the replication of DNA?
a) topoisomerase**Not sure, what the question is asking, but topoisomerase is used to relieve super-coiling.
b) helicase
c) primase
d) ligase
e) all of the above[/QUOTE]
 
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