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Lonely Sol

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Hey, I guess I am just having a brain fart or something, but i kinda forgot the pathway for epinephrine.

Does anyone know how does epinephrine produce more glucose?

*Any help will be greatly appreciated!!
 

Lonely Sol

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which layer permits gas exchange in an egg?
a allantois
b yolk sac
c chorion
d amnion

which circulatory system do anthropods use?
a closed circulatory system
b simple diffusion
c open circulatory system
d cells are in direct contact with internal & external environment.

Each hemoglobin molecule can bind to how many molecules of oxygen?
--4
 

Mstoothlady2012

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which layer permits gas exchange in an egg?
a allantois
b yolk sac
c chorion
d amnion

which circulatory system do anthropods use?
a closed circulatory system
b simple diffusion
c open circulatory system
d cells are in direct contact with internal & external environment.

Each hemoglobin molecule can bind to how many molecules of oxygen?
--4
bravo!! good job....are you cheating? or do you know these stuff on top of your tongue? If you do...then damn you are smart & i have no doubt that you will score 20+ on DAT ...goodluck guys! keep posting good questions. I am thinking of making index cards of these questions so i can memorize them :D
 

Mstoothlady2012

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any1 else wants to answer rest of the questions that i posted? After all of them are answered, i will post more! :)
 

poc91nc

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Yeah I answered those questions too. And lonley doesn't need to cheat...he is the Real Deal...bio machine

I think we're pretty sound on the basics...this thread is mainly for oddball stuff
 

Mstoothlady2012

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Yeah I answered those questions too. And lonley doesn't need to cheat...he is the Real Deal...bio machine

I think we're pretty sound on the basics...this thread is mainly for oddball stuff
oh ok sorry! i dont have any weird questions. I just put stuff that looked important to me.
 

Mstoothlady2012

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Yeah I answered those questions too. And lonley doesn't need to cheat...he is the Real Deal...bio machine

I think we're pretty sound on the basics...this thread is mainly for oddball stuff
& by the way i was kidding about cheating stuff! don't take it seriously!
 

poc91nc

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The brown color of fecal matter is most likely attributed to:
a) bilirubin
b) bile
c) urobilinogen
d) two of the above
e) none of the above
The answer is urobilinogen. Bilirubin is a white/gray pigment that is converted urobilinogen in the small intestine. It is urobilinogen that gives the characteristic brown color of feces.

Which of the following are associated with anchoring junctions:
a) hemidesmosome
b) adherins junction
c) cadherins
d) tight junctions
e) all of the above
hemidesmosomes adherins cadherins are all associated with anchoring junctions...my mistake!! I mean to have choice D as two of the above.

Which of the following base pair substitutions will most likely result in a truncated protein:
a) missense
b) nonsense
c) silent
d) frame-shift
e) all of the above
The answer is a nonsense which will change an amino acid codon into a stop codon...missense will result in a different amino acid codon. Silent mutation is due to the redundancy of the genetic code. Frame-shift will result from insertion or deletion

The term that best describes cell signaling that targets only a few neighboring cells is best described as:
a) autocrine signaling
b) paracrine signaling
c) endocrine signaling
d) synaptic signaling
e) two of the above
Correct!!!

Hashimotos Disease is best described as:
a) anti-body mediated attack on the thyroid
b) non-specific immune attack on the thyroid
c) autoimmune disease involving a cell-mediated attack on the thyroid
d) humoral response that targets the thyroid
e) none of the above
Nice!!!

A pheremone shows the ability to accelerate reproductive maturity in an organism. Which of the following is the correct term for this particular pheremone:
a) primer pheremone
b) releaser pheremone
c) sexual pheremone
d) primal pheremone
e) none of the above
Nice!!!

Traverse tubules are absent in which of the following:
a) smooth muscle
b) skeletal muscle
c) cardiac muscle
d) two of the above
e) all of the above
Good!!!

The fructose portion of semen is produced by:
a) seminal vesicles many
b) sertoli cells
c) seminiferous tubules
d) epididymis
e) prostate gland
Bad ass!!!

Which of the following structures specifically controls the production and release of melatonin?
a) pineal gland
b) suprachiasmatic nucleus
c) midbrain
d) anterior pituitary
e) brocas area
Maybe I should've worded the questions differently...but the suprachiasmatic nucleus controls the pineal gland and therefore does control production and release of melatonin. However, the pineal gland is the location where melatonin is released. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is located in the hypothalamus.

Which of the following will shorten in a muscle contraction:
a) H-zone
b) A-band
c) Z-line
d) I-band
e) two of the above
Nice

Which of the following structures is responsible for the propagation of intracellular action potentials in the sarcomere of skeletal muscle:
a) sarcoplasmic reticulum
b) acetylcholine
c) gap junctions
d) traverse tubules
e) sarcolema
Traverse tubules...I think the action potential from acetylcholine will travel through the traverse tubules before reaching the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Which of the following a correct term to describe a type of contraction that involves the shortening of skeletal muscle:
a) eccentric isometric contraction
b) concentric isometric contraction
c) eccentric isotonic contraction
d) concentric isotonic contraction
e) none of the above
An isometric contraction does not involve the shortening or lengthening of muscles. Nonetheless the strength of the contractio increases with duration. Think of it as a static contraction. An isotonic contraction involves shortening or lengthening. Eccentric pertains to lengthening and concentric pertains to shortening.

Which of the following is an example of a semilunar valve:
a) bicuspid valve
b) tricuspid valve
c) mitral valve
d) pulmonary valve
e) two of the above
Correct

Which of the following will serve to alleviate torque during the replication of DNA?
a) topoisomerase**Not sure, what the question is asking, but topoisomerase is used to relieve super-coiling.
b) helicase
c) primase
d) ligase
e) all of the above
Correct
[/QUOTE]
 

poc91nc

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& by the way i was kidding about cheating stuff! don't take it seriously!

Oh ok...and what I mean by "basic" is easy wording or straightforward concepts. Don't mean to sound like an ass....sorry.

If you can find something that you were confused about or something try to reword it into a question. I find that making multiple choice questions is really working well to tie together somethings that I learned earlier.

I find that a lot of confusion arises in words that sound similar...ie cadherins/clathrin....prophyrin/porin....stuff like that

Of course out of the ball park odd ball stuff is good too.
 

Mstoothlady2012

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If fertilization occurs developing placenta produces what?
If fertilization occurs, the developing placenta produces hCG (human chorionic Gonadotrophin), which maintains corpus luteum.


what are episomes?
episomes are plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome.
 

poc91nc

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Round III

Which of the following best describes the cause of Graves Disease:
a) The TSH receptor is deceived by an antibody mimicing the effects of TSH and the result is an increase in thyroid hormone
b) The TSH receptor is deceived by an antibody mimicing the effects of TSH and the result is a decrease in thyroid hormone
c) It involves a defect in the anterior pituitary therefore resulting in an increase in TSH
d) It involves a defect in the hypothalamus therefore causing a decrease in TSH
e) none of the above

Which of the following cells are capable of histamine production:
a) basophils
b) mast cells
c) eosinophils
d) lymphocytes
e) two of the above

Which of the following can stop transcription:
a) poly A tail
b) 5' Guanosine cap
c) GC hairpin
d) two of the above
e) none of the above

A tumor suppressor is best represented by:
a) cyclin
b) mitosis promoting factor
c) a growth factor receptor
d) an unregulated defective kinase protein
e) two of the above

Which of the following assays would most likely give clues about cell differentiation among a sample of human cells obtained from different organs:
a) southern blot
b) gene trap
c) western blot
d) northern blot
e) all of the above

Successful transfection can be achieved through the use of:
a) calcium phosphate
b) electroporation
c) lipofection
d) gene gun
e) all of the above

Rearrangement of DNA sequences in specific cells would most likely be seen in:
a) antibody production
b) antigen production
c) microtubule production
d) myoglobin production
e) production of MHC complex

Which of the following exhibit coenocytic forms:
a) myxomycota
b) zygomycota
c) acrasiomycota
d) two of the above
e) all of the above

The endosperm is absorbed by the cotelydon in:
a) dicots
b) monocots
c) gymnosperms
d) ferns
e) none of the above

Which of the following statements best describes the purpose of the figure eight waggle dance done by bees:
a) it gives the location of a predator
b) it is done to ward off predators
c) it gives the location of food
d) it is a mating ritual
e) none of the above

Which immunoglobulin is most abundant:
a) IgG
b) IgA
c) IgD
d) IgM
e) all of the above are equally abundant

The first immunoglobulin involved in the humoral response is:
a) IgG
b) IgA
c) IgM
d) IgD
e) IgE

Which of the following is released during ovulation:
a) ovum
b) primary oocyte
c) oogonium
d) secondary oocyte
e) ovule

Which of the following are seedless vascular plants:
a) mosses
b) gymnosperms
c) ferns
d) angiosperms
e) two of the above

If one were to examine a portion of the pancrease that exhibits exocrine functions, which type of simple epithelium would one most likely observe:
a) simple squamous
b) simple columnar
c) stratified columnar
d) pseudostratified
e) none of the above

The attachment of a tendon to a bone that does move is defined as:
a) origin
b) periodontal ligament
c) synovial joint
d) amphiarthrotic joint
e) insertion
 

poc91nc

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If fertilization occurs developing placenta produces what?
If fertilization occurs, the developing placenta produces hCG (human chorionic Gonadotrophin), which maintains corpus luteum.


what are episomes?
episomes are plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome.

I was confused about order...chorion then placenta...because the chorion first produces hCG...at three months the corpus luteum is no longer needed and the endometrium is maintained by the placenta which will produce estrogen and progesterone.

So...what is the chorion derived from? What is the analagous term for the blastodisc in a mammalian blastocyst? What type of cleavage is exhibited by an egg with plentiful yolk?

Thanks...I completely forgot about episomes...now I know. Good stuff
 

Mstoothlady2012

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I was confused about order...chorion then placenta...because the chorion first produces hCG...at three months the corpus luteum is no longer needed and the endometrium is maintained by the placenta which will produce estrogen and progesterone.

So...what is the chorion derived from? What is the analagous term for the blastodisc in a mammalian blastocyst? What type of cleavage is exhibited by an egg with plentiful yolk?

Thanks...I completely forgot about episomes...now I know. Good stuff

well yea you are right....estrogen & progesterone are needed to build up the uterine wall, but remember estrogen & progesterone are secreted by corpus luteum. Therefore it is important to maintain corpus luteum, if fertilization occurs. And corpus luteum is maintained by hCG. So the answer is hCG!
 
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blueyes34

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This is becoming addictive to read, and I am adding all of this information to the margins of my Kaplan book. This is giving me a much better understanding of some things, and I'm starting to be able to answer some of the questions in my head....keep this up!! :thumbup:
 

Mstoothlady2012

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I was confused about order...chorion then placenta...because the chorion first produces hCG...at three months the corpus luteum is no longer needed and the endometrium is maintained by the placenta which will produce estrogen and progesterone.

So...what is the chorion derived from?
chorion derives from embryo itself.

What is the analagous term for the blastodisc in a mammalian blastocyst?
???
What type of cleavage is exhibited by an egg with plentiful yolk?
yolk sac....i am not sure if i understand your question here....

Thanks...I completely forgot about episomes...now I know. Good stuff

.
 

Lonely Sol

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Round III

Which of the following best describes the cause of Graves Disease:
a) The TSH receptor is deceived by an antibody mimicing the effects of TSH and the result is an increase in thyroid hormone**Not sure**
b) The TSH receptor is deceived by an antibody mimicing the effects of TSH and the result is a decrease in thyroid hormone
c) It involves a defect in the anterior pituitary therefore resulting in an increase in TSH
d) It involves a defect in the hypothalamus therefore causing a decrease in TSH
e) none of the above

Which of the following cells are capable of histamine production:
a) basophils
b) mast cells
c) eosinophils
d) lymphocytes
e) two of the above
Which of the following can stop transcription:
a) poly A tail
b) 5' Guanosine cap
c) GC hairpin
d) two of the above
e) none of the above

A tumor suppressor is best represented by:
a) cyclin
b) mitosis promoting factor
c) a growth factor receptor
d) an unregulated defective kinase protein
e) two of the above

Which of the following assays would most likely give clues about cell differentiation among a sample of human cells obtained from different organs:
a) southern blot
b) gene trap
c) western blot
d) northern blot
e) all of the above

Successful transfection can be achieved through the use of:
a) calcium phosphate
b) electroporation
c) lipofection
d) gene gun
e) all of the above

Rearrangement of DNA sequences in specific cells would most likely be seen in:
a) antibody production**Not sure**
b) antigen production
c) microtubule production
d) myoglobin production
e) production of MHC complex

Which of the following exhibit coenocytic forms:
a) myxomycota
b) zygomycota
c) acrasiomycota
d) two of the above
e) all of the above

The endosperm is absorbed by the cotelydon in:
a) dicots
b) monocots
c) gymnosperms
d) ferns
e) none of the above

Which of the following statements best describes the purpose of the figure eight waggle dance done by bees:
a) it gives the location of a predator
b) it is done to ward off predators
c) it gives the location of food
d) it is a mating ritual
e) none of the above

Which immunoglobulin is most abundant:
a) IgG
b) IgA
c) IgD
d) IgM
e) all of the above are equally abundant

The first immunoglobulin involved in the humoral response is:
a) IgG
b) IgA
c) IgM
d) IgD
e) IgE

Which of the following is released during ovulation:
a) ovum
b) primary oocyte
c) oogonium
d) secondary oocyte
e) ovule

Which of the following are seedless vascular plants:
a) mosses**Only if you mean club mossses**
b) gymnosperms
c) ferns
d) angiosperms
e) two of the above

If one were to examine a portion of the pancrease that exhibits exocrine functions, which type of simple epithelium would one most likely observe:
a) simple squamous
b) simple columnar
c) stratified columnar
d) pseudostratified
e) none of the above

The attachment of a tendon to a bone that does move is defined as:
a) origin
b) periodontal ligament
c) synovial joint
d) amphiarthrotic joint
e) insertion

Hope these are right, and I am sorry I dont know all of them, but these are really challenging and its a good practice, most of them require you to think outside the box and apply prior class knowledge!

VERY GOOD JOB poc91!!!
 

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I was thinking along the lines of the trophoblast. If I remember correctly the chorion is derived from the trophoblast. Furthermore, the trophoblast will also aid in implantation

The blastodisc is seen in birds....a small mass of blastomeres that will give rise to the embryo. In humans it's called an embryonic disc and resides inside the blastocyst (the outside is the trophoblast) and the hallow cavity of the blastocyst is the blastocoel

An egg that has plentiful yolk will undergo meroblastic cleavage...cleavage is restricted to a specific location in the egg since yolk is so plentiful

An egg with limited yolk will undergo holoblastic cleavage (like us).
 

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Round III

Which of the following best describes the cause of Graves Disease:
a) The TSH receptor is deceived by an antibody mimicing the effects of TSH and the result is an increase in thyroid hormone**Not sure**
b) The TSH receptor is deceived by an antibody mimicing the effects of TSH and the result is a decrease in thyroid hormone
c) It involves a defect in the anterior pituitary therefore resulting in an increase in TSH
d) It involves a defect in the hypothalamus therefore causing a decrease in TSH
e) none of the above
Correct!!!

Which of the following cells are capable of histamine production:
a) basophils
b) mast cells
c) eosinophils
d) lymphocytes
e) two of the above
Correct

Which of the following can stop transcription:
a) poly A tail
b) 5' Guanosine cap
c) GC hairpin
d) two of the above
e) none of the above
The poly A tail and Guanosine cap are both post transcriptional modifications. The poly A tail is to prevent degredation and I believe the guanosine cap is to prevent it from leaving the nucleus. The GC hairpin is what stops transcription. Correct me if I'm wrong

A tumor suppressor is best represented by:
a) cyclin
b) mitosis promoting factor
c) a growth factor receptor
d) an unregulated defective kinase protein
e) two of the above
A tumor suppresor is typically a cell cycle regulatory protein. Cyclins are an excellent example. These cyclins work with cyclin dependent kinases (cdk) which require cyclins to carry out their phosphorylation function and hence proceed through the various checkpoints of the cell cycle. Mitosis promoting factor is a G2 cyclin

Which of the following assays would most likely give clues about cell differentiation among a sample of human cells obtained from different organs:
a) southern blot
b) gene trap
c) western blot
d) northern blot
e) all of the above
In this particular case...I think the northern blot is most appropriate. We know that all our cells have the same chromosomes (for the most part) and we are looking for cell differentiation or selective gene expression. Thus the northern blot will give us clues about a particular cells gene expression

Successful transfection can be achieved through the use of:
a) calcium phosphate
b) electroporation
c) lipofection
d) gene gun
e) all of the above
Correct

Rearrangement of DNA sequences in specific cells would most likely be seen in:
a) antibody production**Not sure**
b) antigen production
c) microtubule production
d) myoglobin production
e) production of MHC complex
Correct....I think the MHC is wrong because the addition of forgein protein would be added post translationaly...but I'm not sure. However, choice a is true

Which of the following exhibit coenocytic forms:
a) myxomycota
b) zygomycota
c) acrasiomycota
d) two of the above
e) all of the above
Zygomycota are fungi (bread mold is an example...I think. We know true fungi are capable of exhibiting coenocytic forms...the myxomycota (plasmodial slime mold) is also capable...the acrasiomycota is the cellular slime mold and is "multi-cellular"

The endosperm is absorbed by the cotelydon in:
a) dicots
b) monocots
c) gymnosperms
d) ferns
e) none of the above
This is true for dicots...gymnosperms do not have endosperm..ferns are seedless vascular plants. Does anybody know if monocots are capable of absorbing the endosperm? I thought they don't...but could be wrong

Which of the following statements best describes the purpose of the figure eight waggle dance done by bees:
a) it gives the location of a predator
b) it is done to ward off predators
c) it gives the location of food
d) it is a mating ritual
e) none of the above
Correct

Which immunoglobulin is most abundant:
a) IgG
b) IgA
c) IgD
d) IgM
e) all of the above are equally abundant
Correct

The first immunoglobulin involved in the humoral response is:
a) IgG
b) IgA
c) IgM
d) IgD
e) IgE
I was under the impression it was IgM...I'll have to revisit this later. IgD is usually found on top of Bcells and I think they promote antibody production

Which of the following is released during ovulation:
a) ovum
b) primary oocyte
c) oogonium
d) secondary oocyte
e) ovule
ahh..tricky...the secondary oocyte is released during ovulation. The secondary oocyte is the product of Meiosis I...Meiosis II will not occur until fertilization

Which of the following are seedless vascular plants:
a) mosses**Only if you mean club mossses**
b) gymnosperms
c) ferns
d) angiosperms
e) two of the above
Ahh...good call...yes I did mean club moss!!!

If one were to examine a portion of the pancrease that exhibits exocrine functions, which type of simple epithelium would one most likely observe:
a) simple squamous
b) simple columnar
c) stratified columnar
d) pseudostratified
e) none of the above
Simple cuboidal is usually abundant in glands and certain portions of the kidney/B]

The attachment of a tendon to a bone that does move is defined as:
a) origin
b) periodontal ligament
c) synovial joint
d) amphiarthrotic joint
e) insertion
Good



Some of these questions were from things that are commonly confused...and strangely enough no study guide out there seems to hammer these concepts into your brain. I made up some of these questions from tid-bits that I felt enhanced my own conceptual framework of biology.

Most of the biochem stuff is from my old biochem notes....
 

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Whoops...for the pancrease question...it would be simple cuboidal. Which lines glands and certain portions of the kidney!!! Therefore none of the above
 

Lonely Sol

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Round III




The first immunoglobulin involved in the humoral response is:
a) IgG
b) IgA
c) IgM
d) IgD
e) IgE
I was under the impression it was IgM...I'll have to revisit this later. IgD is usually found on top of Bcells and I think they promote antibody production

Which of the following is released during ovulation:
a) ovum
b) primary oocyte
c) oogonium
d) secondary oocyte
e) ovule
ahh..tricky...the secondary oocyte is released during ovulation. The secondary oocyte is the product of Meiosis I...Meiosis II will not occur until fertilization
Most of the biochem stuff is from my old biochem notes....

1. I picked IgD since they have to do with antibodies and antibodies are responsible for humural response.


2. From what I've studied I always thought ovum was released and the rupture follicle became corpus leutum. Can you double check this!!
 

blueyes34

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Isn't D.Acrasiomycota and Myxomycota the same thing??? Reviewing my botany notes, the endosperm is absorbed in dicots, and there is lots of endosperm present in monocots. So, only dicots absorb the endosperm.
 
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Lonely Sol

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Does anyone have any experimental bio question from their old texts or something. I am trying to come up with some but its hard to come up with those. If anyone has some, would you mind posting some of those, Thanks!!
 

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Does anyone have any experimental bio question from their old texts or something. I am trying to come up with some but its hard to come up with those. If anyone has some, would you mind posting some of those, Thanks!!

SDN search amsie's dat destroyer review. it has questions like these.
 

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I'm loving all these practice questions so I thought of throwing some of my own questions. See if anyone can answer them correctly :)

I. When Adipocytes increase in size, due to increase fat storage, they increase the production of:
a) leptin
b) resistin
c) free fatty acids
d) all of the above
e) none of the above
I'm gonna go with leptin...b/c I remember it being associated with obesity. Totally shooting from the hip on this one!!!

II. Which of the following reflex(es) is (are) likely to occur during the gastric phase of digestion:
a) ileogastric
b) gastrocolic
c) gastroileal
d) gastroesophageal
e) only (b) and (c)
oh lord....

III. Which of the following is (are) true about insulin effects in hepatocytes:
a) stimulates exocytosis of vesicles containing glucose transporters (glut4)
b) increases glucose-6-phosphate activity
c) increases glycogen phosphorylase activity
d) increases hexokinase activity
e) all of the above
A
hepatocytes....liver cells right? b,d are associated with gycolysis....a doesn't seem right. If anything insulin will increase glucose uptake....Isn't glycogen phosphorylase associated with catabolism..glucagon/adrenaline..etc

I hope everyone finds this challenging
 

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Sorry, D.Acrasiomycotat and Myxomycota are not the same thing. Oops, my bad.

Hope that sticks now!!!

Myxomycota are the plasmodial slime mold (m/p)

Acrasiomycota are the cellular slime mold

People often confuse acrasiomycota with ascomycota (true fungi)
 

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1. I picked IgD since they have to do with antibodies and antibodies are responsible for humural response.


2. From what I've studied I always thought ovum was released and the rupture follicle became corpus leutum. Can you double check this!!

It's true lonely, I just checked my physiology book! I was confused about that awhile back too, and when I read it in the book, I was surprised.

We know that the primary oocyte is arrested in prophase I of meiosis I...however, the secondary oocyte (product of meiosis I) is arrested in metaphase II!!! It is indeed the union of sperm and secondary oocyte that allows the completion of meiosis II. After meiosis II is complete then nucleic fusion occurs to give a diploid zygote!
 

Lonely Sol

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It's true lonely, I just checked my physiology book! I was confused about that awhile back too, and when I read it in the book, I was surprised.

We know that the primary oocyte is arrested in prophase I of meiosis I...however, the secondary oocyte (product of meiosis I) is arrested in metaphase II!!! It is indeed the union of sperm and secondary oocyte that allows the completion of meiosis II. After meiosis II is complete then nucleic fusion occurs to give a diploid zygote!

alright fine!! loll

Na, but thats a good explanation and it makes sense now, i guess this is why kaplan blue book is crap because they say ovum is released
 

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More clarification....

The initiation of meiosis II by fertilization is apparently only seen in humans. If anyone can confirm this that'd be great.
 

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Since you guys seem to know your stuff, thought to ask you all for help! Sorry i know this thread is for posting challenging bio questions, but I am having difficulty understanding Q 50 of destroyer bio section. I am sure it might be pretty basic stuff for you guys, but not for me.

Q 50 - Which statement is false?

a) The dark reaction of photosynthesis can occur if there is light
b) NADPH is needed in the dark reaction of photosynthesis.
c) During the dark reaction CO2 becomes attached to ribulose, which then breaks down to yield 2 moles of PGAL
d) During the light reaction of photosynthesis, a low concentration of hydrogen ions are produced within the thylakoids
e) SIx turns of the calvin Cycle are required to produce one glucose molecule

correct answer: d
I think: d & e - both are false

I know for sure that a,b & c are true. I understand why d is false. But i do not understand why e is true? I read Schuam's outlines of bio & my bio textbook (CAmpbell 6th edition) & nowhere does it say that it requires 6 calvin cycle to produce 1 glucose molecule. Campbell says - For the net synthesis of one molecule of this sugar, the cycle must take place 3 times, fixing 3 molecules of CO2. (pg 189) For the net synthesis of one G3P molecule, the Calvin cycle consumes a total of 9 molecules of ATP & 6 molecules of NADPH. (pg 191) It doesnt mention that it takes 6 cycles to produce 1 glucose molecule or may be I am not able to read between lines. I have always had trouble understanding both stages of photosynthesis.

I would really appreciate any help! Thanks in advance!
 

Lonely Sol

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Since you guys seem to know your stuff, thought to ask you all for help! Sorry i know this thread is for posting challenging bio questions, but I am having difficulty understanding Q 50 of destroyer bio section. I am sure it might be pretty basic stuff for you guys, but not for me.

Q 50 - Which statement is false?

a) The dark reaction of photosynthesis can occur if there is light
b) NADPH is needed in the dark reaction of photosynthesis.
c) During the dark reaction CO2 becomes attached to ribulose, which then breaks down to yield 2 moles of PGAL
d) During the light reaction of photosynthesis, a low concentration of hydrogen ions are produced within the thylakoids
e) SIx turns of the calvin Cycle are required to produce one glucose molecule

correct answer: d
I think: d & e - both are false

I know for sure that a,b & c are true. I understand why d is false. But i do not understand why e is true? I read Schuam's outlines of bio & my bio textbook (CAmpbell 6th edition) & nowhere does it say that it requires 6 calvin cycle to produce 1 glucose molecule. Campbell says - For the net synthesis of one molecule of this sugar, the cycle must take place 3 times, fixing 3 molecules of CO2. (pg 189) For the net synthesis of one G3P molecule, the Calvin cycle consumes a total of 9 molecules of ATP & 6 molecules of NADPH. (pg 191) It doesnt mention that it takes 6 cycles to produce 1 glucose molecule or may be I am not able to read between lines. I have always had trouble understanding both stages of photosynthesis.

I would really appreciate any help! Thanks in advance!


Okay the best way to think about this is to see how many carbons are present in glucose (C6H12O6). Since 6 carbons are present, and CO2 only has one carbon. Therefore 6 CO2 will be required to produce the one molecule of glucose.

Things to know about these:

You need 18 ATP and 12 NADPH (these 2 things come from light rxn), and 6 CO2 to complete six turn of calvin cycle and produce 1 glucose, 10 PGAL (ussually 12 but 2 are used up to make glucose). The remaining PGAL are recycled to make RUBP again so they could be used up again!

*Hope this helps!
 

Mstoothlady2012

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Okay the best way to think about this is to see how many carbons are present in glucose (C6H12O6). Since 6 carbons are present, and CO2 only has one carbon. Therefore 6 CO2 will be required to produce the one molecule of glucose.

Things to know about these:

You need 18 ATP and 12 NADPH (these 2 things come from light rxn), and 6 CO2 to complete six turn of calvin cycle and produce 1 glucose, 10 PGAL (ussually 12 but 2 are used up to make glucose). The remaining PGAL are recycled to make RUBP again so they could be used up again!

*Hope this helps!
hey thanks...that makes sense! i wonder why campbell says 3 turns! i called Dr. Romano as well...he is sending me a link that will give better explaination.

thanks again! i aprpeciate your help :)
 
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poc91nc

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Hi!
In order to answer this problem, make sure that your clear with what insulin and glucagon does. Then eliminate wrong answers since the correct answer might not be obvious in this particular problem. Since you identified that hepatocytes are in fact liver cells, you can easily eliminate choice (a) just knowing that (glut4) is only present adipose and muscle cells.

Very challenging nonetheless....it didn't occur to me that they were absent in liver cells.

Hexokinase is req to give glucose-6-phosphate right? Which will be subsequently converted to glycogen?
 

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Traverse tubules are absent in which of the following:
a) smooth muscle
b) skeletal muscle
c) cardiac muscle
d) two of the above
e) all of the above
[/QUOTE]

Don't cardiac muscles also lack transverse tubules. They also use gap junctions, correct?
 

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Don't cardiac muscles also lack transverse tubules. They also use gap junctions, correct?

Corect! only skeletal muscles have T-tubules. Sorry for the wrong answer!
 

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[/QUOTE]Don't cardiac muscles also lack transverse tubules. They also use gap junctions, correct?[/QUOTE]

I was pretty sound about the questions I posted...but it's good that people are asking questions...that way I have to double check stuff!!!

Anyways....

Then how do you explain the propagation of intracellular action potentials?

The gap junctions are required for intercellular propagation of electrical impulses.

Pg 614 of Anatomy and Physiology by Elaine Marieb

"However, in contrast to what is seen in skeletal muscle, the myofibrils of cardiac muscle cells vary in diameter and tend to fuse together. This results in a banding pattern less dramatic than that of skeletal muscle. A T system is present, but the T tubules are wider and few than those of skeletal muscle."
 

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[/QUOTE]
A T system is present, but the T tubules are wider and few than those of skeletal muscle."[/QUOTE]

So does this mean that the cardiac muscles use the calmodulin complex and t-tubules?

Do you guys think these questions are overboard for the DAT? If not, I am in serious trouble. I was looking at the bio questions in the Kaplan blue book and they are so easy compare to these. Will one even see questions like those on the real thing?
 

poc91nc

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I made up most of those questions from things that people commonly get confused about or take for granted....

Good example is the "what is released during ovulation"...

Things like that...the t-tubule question also falls under those lines. Personally...I just got bored to death with the stuff I was studying (reviewing the same bio crap again and again)....so I thought writing questions would be a better way to tie together the stuff I was studying.

Anyways...go through your own notes...and try to remember stuff that you found to be confusing and stuff and come up with your own multiple choice questions. I think it will help out.

For the most part...I'm assuming most DAT bio questions will be rather straight forward...but those questions that seperate a 18-19/ from a 20 will probably require more specific knowledge. Good luck
 

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bump for a great questions thread!


also, for those of you guys who did take it already (like poc :) ) did you see this type of difficulty on the real thing? Some of these questions are out there, at least for me, tells me I have a lot more memorizing and understanding to do in bio :scared: Gonna review some more then read through this thread and see if I can keep up/follow along cuz right now I found it a bit overwhelming :oops:

thanks for the great questions though you guys!:D
 

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Cool...someone bumped this thread!!! I was posting questions on this thread days before my DAT.

Making up your own questions (especially for bio) was really good practice. An excellent way of bringing together everything you know...

keep this thread going w/ more multiple choice questions.
 

poc91nc

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bump for a great questions thread!


also, for those of you guys who did take it already (like poc :) ) did you see this type of difficulty on the real thing? Some of these questions are out there, at least for me, tells me I have a lot more memorizing and understanding to do in bio :scared: Gonna review some more then read through this thread and see if I can keep up/follow along cuz right now I found it a bit overwhelming :oops:

thanks for the great questions though you guys!:D

Thanks for bumping this thread!

The short answer to your question is No. However...there are some questions that are "out there." But...what will make your life easier is that the answer choices will be in such a way that you will easily be able to eliminate many choices. Process of elimintion came really easy on the real exam.

So, while there will be some "out there" questions, where when looking at the question by itself may seem difficult...finding the "best" answer isn't too bad.

At the end of the day...I'd say it was fair! Hope that helps.

Good Luck
 

Lonely Sol

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Cool...someone bumped this thread!!! I was posting questions on this thread days before my DAT.

Making up your own questions (especially for bio) was really good practice. An excellent way of bringing together everything you know...

keep this thread going w/ more multiple choice questions.

Hey poc,
Yea I remember those days!! I know I was freaking out that time! Anyways, I am going to take it one more time in two weeks, hopefully get good score in RC!!
 

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A pheremone shows the ability to accelerate reproductive maturity in an organism. Which of the following is the correct term for this particular pheremone:
a) primer pheremone
b) releaser pheremone
c) sexual pheremone
d) primal pheremone
e) none of the above
Nice!!!


Wouldnt the answer be primer pherome b/c primer pheromes bring about long-term change in recipient while a releaser pherome brings about a reversible change?
 

poc91nc

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A pheremone shows the ability to accelerate reproductive maturity in an organism. Which of the following is the correct term for this particular pheremone:
a) primer pheremone
b) releaser pheremone
c) sexual pheremone
d) primal pheremone
e) none of the above
Nice!!!


Wouldnt the answer be primer pherome b/c primer pheromes bring about long-term change in recipient while a releaser pherome brings about a reversible change?

You're right. My bad!
 

poc91nc

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Hey poc,
Yea I remember those days!! I know I was freaking out that time! Anyways, I am going to take it one more time in two weeks, hopefully get good score in RC!!

Hey lonely! Long time no see man! Hope all is well. You're gonna kick butt man. No doubt about it
 

Mstoothlady2012

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This thread has really good bio questions and a lot of them that some people are looking for. Thought to bump it enjoy!!! :D
 
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